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Medical Terminology

mouth

opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing and mixing with saliva)

tongue

consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attached to posterior region of the mouth. Provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech.

palate

separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity

soft palate

posterior portion, not supported by bone

hard palate

anterior portion, supported by bone

uvula

soft v-shaped structure that extends from the soft palate; directs food into the throat

pharynx, throat

performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus

esophagus

10-inch tube that is a passageway for food extending from the pharynx to the stomach

stomach

J-shaped sac that mixes and store food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control

cardia

area around the opening of the esophagus

fundus

uppermost domed portion of the stomach

body

central portion of the stomach

antrum

lower portion of the stomach

pylorus

portion of the stomach that connects to the small intestine

pyloric sphincter

ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the small intestine

duodenum

first 10-12" of thee small intestine

jejenum

2nd portion of the small intestine (8 ft long)

ileum

3rd portion of the small intestine (11 ft long); connects with large intestine

large intestine

canal that is approximately 5 ft long and extends from the ileum to the anus. Responsible for absorption of water and solid waste elimination

cecum

blind U-shaped that is the first portion of the large intestine

colon

portion between the cecum and rectum. Consists of 4 parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the sigmoid colon

rectum

remaining portion of the large intestine approximately 8-10 inches long that extends from the sigmoid colon to the anus

anus

sphincter muscle (ringlike band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight at the end of the digestive tract

salivary glands

produces saliva, which flows into the mouth

liver

produces bile, necessary for the digestion of fats. (Liver also perform many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism)

bile ducts

passageways that carry bile

hepatic bile duct

passageway that carries bile from the liver

cystic bile duct

passageway that carries from the gall bladder

common bile duct

formed by the hepatic and cystic bile ducts

gall bladder

small sac-like structure that stores bile

pancreas

produces pancreatic juice, which helps digest all types of food and secretes insulin for CHO metabolism

peritoneum

serous sac-like lining of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

appendix

small pouch, which has no known function in digestion, attached to the cecum

abdomen

portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis

antr/o

antrum

cec/o,colon/

cecum

duoden/o

duodenum

enter/o

intestine (usually denoting the small intestine)

esphag/o

esophagus

gastr/o

stomach

ile/o

ileum

jejun/o

jejunum

or/o, stamat/o

mouth

proct/o, rect/o

rectum

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

abdomin/o,celi/o,lapard/o

abdomen (abdominal cavity)

append/o, appendic/o

appendix

cheil/o

lip

cholangi/o

bile duct

chole/o

gall, bile

choledoch/o

common bile duct

diverticul/o

diverticulum, or blind pouch, extending from a hollow organ

gingiv/o

gum

gloss/o

tongue

hepat/

liver

herni/o

hernia, or protrusion of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall

palat/o

palate

pancreat/o

pancreas

peritone/o

peritoneum

polyp/o

polyp

pylor/o

pylorus

sial/o

saliva, salivary gland

steat/o

fat

uvul/o

uvula

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

cholangioma

tumor of the bile duct

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gall bladder

choledocholithiasis

condition of stones in the common bile duct

cholelithiasis

condition of gall stones

diverticulitis

inflammation of the diverticulum

diverticulosis

abnormal condition of having diverticula

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestines

gastoenterocolitis

inflammation of the stomach, intestines, and colon

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

hepatoma

tumor of the liver

palatitis

inflammation of the palate

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

polyposis

abnormal condition of multiple polyps (in the mucus membrane of the intestine, especially the colon; high potential for malignancy)

proctoposis

prolapse of the rectum

rectocele

protrusion of the rectum

siaolith

stone in the salivary gland

steatohepatitis

inflammation of the liver associated with (excess) fat; often caused by alcohol abuse and obesity; over time may cause cirrhosis

uvilitis

inflammation of the uvula

adhesion

abnormal growing together of two surfaces that are normally separated. May occur after abdominal surgery; treatment is called ahesiolysis or adhesiotomy

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea in females, and abnormal fear of becoming obese

bulima nervosa

an eating disorder involving gorging with food followed induced vomiting or laxative abuse (binging and purging)

celiac disease

a malabsorption syndrome caused by an immune system reaction to gluten, which may damage the lining of the small intestine responsible for absorption of food into the bloodstream

cirrhosis

chronic disease of the liver with the gradual destruction of cells and formation of scar tissue; commonly caused by alcoholism and certain types of viral hepatitis

Crohn's disease

chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract usually affecting the ileum and colon; characterized by ulcerations and the formation of scar tissue that may lead to intestinal obstruction

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

the abnormal backward flow of the gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus, causing heartburn and the gradual breakdown of mucous barrier of the esophagus

hemochromatosis

an iron metabolism disorder that occurs when too much iron is absorbed from food, resulting in excessive deposition of iron in the tissue; can cause congestive heart failure, diabetes, cirrhosis, or cancer of the liver

hemorrhoids

swollen or distended veins in rectal area, which may be internal or external, and can be a source of rectal bleeding

ileus

obstruction of the intestine, caused by failure of peristalsis

intussusception

telescoping of a segment of the intestine

irritable bowel syndrome

periodic disturbances of bowel function, such as diarrhea and/or constipation, usually associated with abdominal pain

obesity

excess body fat (not body weight)

peptic ulcer

eroded area of the mucous membrane of stomach or duodenum associated with increased secretion of acid from the stomach, bacterial infection (H. pfylori) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (often referred to as gastric or duodenal ulcer)

polyp

tumorlike growth extending outward from a mucous membrane; usually benign; common sites are in the nose, throat, and intestines

ulcerative colitis

inflammation of colon with the formation of ulcers. Main symptom is bloody diarrhea, treated with an ileostomy

volvulus

twisting or kinking of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction

abdominocentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdominal cavity

abdominoplasty

surgical repair of the abdomen

pepsia

digestion

anoplasty

surgical repair of the anus

antrectomy

excision of the antrum

appendectomy

excision of the appendix

celiotomy

incision into the abdominal cavity

cheilorrahaphy

suture of the lip

cholecystectomy

excision of the gall bladder

choledocholithotomy

incision into the common bile duct to remove a stone

colectomy

excision of the colon

colostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the colon (through the abdominal wall)

diverticulectomy

excision of a diverticulum

enterorrhaphy

suture of the intestine

esphagogastroplasty

surgical repair of the esophagus and the stomach

gastrectomy

excision of the stomach (or part of the stomach)

gastrojejunostomy

creation of an artificial opening into the stomach (through the abdominal wall) A tube is inserted through the opening for administering food when swallowing is impossible

gigivectomy

surgical removal of gum tissue

glossorraphy

suture of the tongue

hemicolectomy

excision of half of the colon

herniorraphy

suturing of the hernia for (repair)

ileostomy

creation of an artificial opening in the abdominal wall (used for passage of stool)

laparotomy

incision into the abdominal cavity

palatoplasty

surgical repair of the palate

polypectomy

excision of a polyp

pyloromyotomy

incision into the pyloric muscle

pyloroplasty

surgical repair of the pylorus

uvulectomy

excision of the uvula

uvulpalatopharyngoplasty

surgical repair of the uvula, palate and the pharynx (performed to correct obstructive sleep apnea)

abdominoperineal resection

removal of the distal colon and rectum thought both abdominal and perineal approached; performed to treat colorectal cancer an inflammatory disease of the lower large intestine

anastomosis

an opening created by surgically joining two structures, such as blood vessels or bowel segments

bariatric surgery

surgical reduction of gastric capacity to treat morbid obesity causing serious illness

hemmorhoidectomy

excision of hemorrhoids

vagotomy

cutting of certain branches of the vagus nerve, performed with gastric surgery to reduce the amount of gastric acid produced and this reduce the recurrence of ulcers

cholangiogram

radiographic image of bile ducts

cholangiography

radiographic imaging of the bile ducts

CT colongraphy

radiographic imaging of the colon

esophagogram

radiographic image of the esophagus

colonscope

instrument used for visual examination of the colon

colonoscopy

visual examination of the colon

endoscope

instrument used for visual examination of a hollow organ

endocscopy

visual examination of a hollow organ

esphagogastroduodenoscopy

visual examination of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

esophagoscopy

visual examination of the esophagus

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