How are natural cellulosic fibers classified?
Classified according to the plant component from which they are removed.
Name 4 types of seed fiber
cotton, coir, kapok, milkweed
Name 6 types of bast fiber
flax/linen, ramie, hemp, jute, henaf, hibiscus
Name 4 types of leaf fiber
pina, abaca, sisal, hinequen
Type of fiber that grows within a pod or boll from developing seeds. Must be separated from seed to be used.
Type of fiber that is obtained from the stem and root of a plant, near outer edge (epidermis)
Type of fiber is removed from the veins or ribs of a leaf.
What are the 3 steps in cotton production?
1. Cotton boll splits open (is mature) and its picked 2. Cotton taken to a gin and is ginned 3. The fibers are pressed into bales and sold to spinning mills
The separation of fibers and the seeds
Short fibers(1/8 inch in length) that remain on the cotton seeds after ginning.
What are the 7 other products that linters can make?
1. Rayon and acetate 2.Cellophane 3. Photographic film 4. mail polish 5. methylcellulose-make up products 6. chewing gum 7. seeds are crushed to obtain cotton seed oil and meal
The longer a fiber is . . . is it smoother or less smooth?
longer fiber = smoother fiber.
Why is staple length important?
It relates to fiber fineness and tensile strength
What are 2 examples of long staple fibers?
Pima and Egyptian
How do you identify cotton under a microscope?
Convolutions- wool and others don't have this
The cellulose layers in cotton are arranged in what form?
in a spiral form
These spirals made up in cotton sometimes do what?
How are convolutions formed?
When the cotton fibers mature and the central canal collapses, the reverse spirals in the 2nd layer causes the fibers to twist. Lumen will collapse and makes convolutions
What does lumen do for cotton before it matures?
helps cotton grow
Treating cotton yarns or fabrics with Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
What are the 4 permanent changes from mercerization of cotton
1. swelling of fiber 2. increases absorbency and dyeability 3.Creates rounder cross section 4. Increase luminosity and smoothness
What are the 3 main properties of fibers?
Durability, Comfort, and Appearance retention
With durability, why can cotton be handled roughly when laundering?
Cotton is 30% stronger when wet
What is Cotton's elongation and elasticity like?
Elongation and elasticity are low
What is cotton's abrasion resistance like?
Good, depends on heaviness and thickness of fabrics
What are the 5 reasons cotton is comfortable?
1. high absorbency 2. soft hand 3. good heat conductivity 4. good electric conductivity 5. absorbs moisture in cool, damp conditions
What is cotton's absorbency like?
What's cotton's hand like?
What is cotton's heat conductivity like?
good heat conductivity- Lets the heat pass through, why we where it in summer
What is cotton's electric conductivity like?
good electric conductivity
What is cotton's absorbency like?
absorbs moisture in cool, damp conditions
What is cotton's appearance retention like?
What is cotton's wrinkling like?
it easily wrinkles
What is cotton's resiliency like?
Poor resiliency- can crush up easily
Why is polyester and nylon used in carpets and not cotton?
Polyester and nylon have high resiliency and cotton doesn't
What is cotton's shrinkage like?
all cotton fabric shrinks to some extent
What is cotton's elastic recovery like?
Elastic recovery is moderate
What 2 things are used in processing cotton (may not be best for environment)
1. Use of large quantities of energy (like heat and water) 2.Use of chemicals to clean the fiber, to finish and dye the fabrics
What 4 farming methods of cotton make an environmental impact?
1. Use of chemical fertilizers 2. Use of pesticides 3. strip leaves for harvest 4. control of plant growth
3 types of cotton that are moving towards a new direction are?
Organic cotton, Transition cotton, and Green cotton
Usable cotton fibers removed in the ginning process
____ are removed from the seeds and are used to a limited extent as raw material in producing things
Based on the length of fiber, what are the 3 groups of Cotton fiber?
Upland, Long-staple, and Short-staple
Type of fiber length, 7/8- 1.25 inches in length. 97% of US cotton crop
Type of fiber length, 1 5/16- 1.5 inches in length. 3% US crop. Higher quality
Type of fiber length, less than 3/4 inch length, mostly India and Asia.
With type of fiber length, what type is pima and egyptian and why?
long-staple because it is finer, softer, and higher quality
Bundles of cellulose chains in cotton. Cellulose layers are composed of this and it is arranged in a spiral that sometimes reverses direction
How does fibrils contribute to the convolutions in cotton fiber?
Cellulose layers are composed of fibrils and it is arranged in a spiral that sometimes reverses direction. The reverse spirals contribute to the development of convolutions that affect the fiber's elastic recovery and elongation
In cotton, what do convolutions affect?
They affect the cotton fiber's elastic recovery and elongation
Why is yarn spinning easy for cotton, even with its short length?
Convolutions form a natural texture that enables the fibers to cling to one another
Why does cotton have good absorbency and why can it react well with dyes and many finishes?
Cotton fibers are amorphous and have empty pockets for good absorbency or moisture. (More?)
Long staple cotton produces weaker or stronger yarns?
Why does cotton feel comfortable against the skin?
soft hand, high absorbency, and good heat and electric conductivity (no static buildup). Has no surface characteristics that irritate the skin. Fibers absorb moisture and feel good against the skin in high humidity
Cotton has low resiliency and it stays wrinkled. Explain why (scientifically)
The hydrogen bonds holding the molecular chains together are weak, so when fabrics are crushed or bent, chains move freely to new positions. When pressure removed, these weak internal forces cannot pull the chains back to their original positions, so fabric stays wrinkled.
Type of cotton that produces less fiber per acre, but sell for about twice the price of white cotton. Are shorter and have less uniform properties than do white cotton
naturally colored cotton
Type of fiber that is produced following state fiber- certification standards on land where organic farming practices have been used for at least 3 yrs.No synthetic commercial pesticides or fertilizers are used.
What are the major uses of cotton (in %s) ?
50% apparel, 60% of furnishings, 9% of the industrial or technical products sold in the US
Fiber that is obtained from the fibrous mass between the outer shell and the husk of the coconut.
Kapok comes from which tree?
Java or Indian kapok tree
Can coir be bleached or dyed?
What is coir's resistance like?
Good resistance to abrasion, water, and weather
What is coir's texture like? What does it produce in fabrics?
Has a stiff, wiry texture and coarse size that produces fabrics whose weave, pattern, or design is clearly visible
Grasscloth is another name for?
Burlap is another name for?
The process of bacterial rotting or decomposing the pectin in plant stems in order to remove bast fibers.
What are 3 types of retting?
Dew retting (fields), Water retting, Chemical retting (fastest method)
The process of separating bast fiber bundles into individual fibers and removing short irregular fibers. Aka combing
Under the microscope (longitudinal view), what characteristic feature of Flax fiber can be used to identify it?
Flax fibers have nodes or joints-crosswise markings. Nodes appear to be slightly swollen and resemble joints in a stalk of corn or bamboo.
What do nodes or joints contribute to in flax?
They contribute to its flexibility and how you recognize flax under a microscope
Among Cotton, flax, and ramie, which fiber is the strongest? Why and what is it resistant to?
Ramie-one of the strongest natural fibers and strength increases when wet. Resistant to insects, rotting, mildew, and shrinkage
Hemp fiber is suitable for making cordage or twine, explain why?
It has high strength and is resistant to rotting when exposed to water
What are 5 other types of fibers (not bast, seed, or leaf)?
Rush, sea grass, maize or cornhusks, palm fiber, wicker
The fibrous mass between the outer shell and husk of the coconut.
Coir or coco fiber
What product often uses coir?
doormats because its very abrasion resistant
Why is kapok and milkweed(silkweed) used as a fiber fill?
Because it is difficult to spin
This fiber is harvested by pulling up the plant or cutting it close to the ground.
Bast fibers are sealed together by what 3 things?
pectins(associated with flax), waxes, and gums
What are the 4 main steps in processing bast fibers?
Rippling, Retting, Scutching, Hacking
In processing bast fibers, this step is the removal of seeds from the plant
In processing bast fibers, this step is the removal of pectins-to loosen the fibers from the stalk
In processing bast fibers, this step is the removal of woody portions by rinsing and dying the stems
In processing bast fibers, this step separates the fibers from one another and removal of short and irregular fiber
___ refers to fabric made from flax
Lint is associated with what?
What are the 6 main properties of flax (pilling, linting, resiliency, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency)?
1. low pilling 2. low linting tendancies 3. low resiliency, low elasticity-like cotton, good abrasion resistance high absorbency
Flax has a high degree of orientation, which means what?
Flax is a strong fiber
Flax has a high or low degree of crystallinity?
high degree of crystallinity
With the longitudinal view of flax, what is its main visible feature?
Noticeable crosswise marking called nodes that resemble bamboo-like appearance
With flax and it's durability, is it a strong or weak natural fiber?
strong natural fiber
With flax and it's durability, high or low elongation?
very low elongation
With flax and it's durability, good or poor elasticity?
With flax and its comfort, is it a good or poor conductor of heat?
good conductor of heat-lets heat pass through
With flax and its comfort, is it a good or poor conductor of elasticity?
good conductor of elasticity- no clingy
Type of bast fiber that comes from tall shrubs, harvested every 60 days, plant is cut and not pulled, similar to flax, and very strong fiber, esp when wet
Ramie or grasscloth
Type of bast fiber that resembles flax, coarser and stiffer than flax, and can be 3-15ft long.
What are the 3 properties of hemp (UV and mold, elongation, strength(MORE?)
Resistant to UV and mold, Lowest elongation among natural fibers, High strength (MORE??)
Leaf fiber that is obtained from pineapple plant. It is soft, lustrous, white/ivory colored
Leaf fiber from member of banana tree family. Fibers are coarse and very long
2 leaf fibers that are smooth, straight, and yellow
Sisal and Henequen
Natural fiber are identified based on the ____.
Generic names are only for what types of fibers as per Textile Fiber Product Identification Act (TFPIA)
___ ____ fibers are classified according to the plant component from which they are removed.
Natural cellulosic fibers
Short fibers (1/8 inch in length) that remain on the cotton seed after ginning.
What 2 seed fibers are difficult to spin, so they are used as a fiber fill instead?
kapok and milkweed