Ancient India Chapters 14-17

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33 terms · Important terms for Mohenjo Daro,Hinduism, Buddhism and the Maurya Empire.

Govt./Organization in Mohenjo Daro

Citadel/Granary/System of Weights/Organized streets and housing/sewer system

Culture in Mohenjo Daro

Great Bath/stone seals/games (dice, balls, board games)/clay models

Aryans

Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Indus Valley and brought elements of what would be Hinduism

Sanskrit

Written language developed by the Aryans

Vedas

Four collections of sacred writings produced by the Aryans during an early stage of their settlement in India

Sacred Cow

Animal revered in India and provider of dairy products, manure (for farming or fuel) and leather

Varna

The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.

Caste

Highly organized and rigid social class system in which people are expected to stay within their own social group

Karma

Principle in which the deeds one does affects what happens to one's soul after death

Dharma

In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste

Samsara

The endless cycle of birth and suffering and death and rebirth

Yoga

A system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind

Brahman

Hindu name for a supreme power, or a divine force, which is greater than all other deities (gods).

Brahma

The creator god shown with four heads

Shiva

The destroyer god and father of Ganesha

Vishnu

A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world (shown as being blue)

Ganesha

Elephant-headed god who is the remover of obstacles

Pilgrimage

A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.

Siddhartha Gautama

Sheltered prince of India that wondered beyond the castle walls and saw suffering - became The Buddha

Buddha

"Awakened one." Siddhartha Gautama and all others who have experienced enlightenment but, motivated by compassion, stop short of entering nirvana so as to help others achieve it.

Three forms of suffering

Old age, sickness and death

Ascetic

Practicing self-denial; avoiding physical pleasures and comforts such as possessions, fine clothes, money and shelter

Nirvana

In Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment

Bodhi Tree

The tree under which Sidartha Gautama achieved enlightenment.

Middle Way

Basic Buddhist teaching of the Eightfold Path; it advises people to live in moderation,and avoid the extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana

Four Noble Truths

The central teachings of Buddhism: to live is to suffer, suffering is caused by desire, the end of suffering can be achieved,and the solution is the Noble Eightfold Path.

Eightfold Path

In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering

Sangha

The Buddhist community of monks and nuns; one of the Three Jewels of Buddhism.

Reincarnation

The Hindu or Buddhist belief that a person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions

Mauryas

First family to unify India

Ashoka

Mauryan king who embraced Buddhism

Edict

A command that is obeyed like a law

Four goals of Ashoka's edicts

Promote Buddhist values such as kindness and nonviolence
Promote welfare such as good health, clean water and food
Promote justice and describe way that people were to be treated
Promote security from the Maurya's enemies

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