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The thalamus serves as a

sensory switchboard

Teaching a patient to regain use of an impaired limb by limiting his or her use of the good limb is called

constraint-induced therapy

An air pump that keeps the sleeper's airway open and breathing regular is often prescribed for serious cases of

sleep apnea

According to Freud, the latent content of a dream refers to

its underlying but censored meaning

The function of dendrites is to

receive incoming signals from other neurons

Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that

individuals who are given morphine for pain relief SELDOM develop the irresistible cravings of an addict

Mark's abuse of alcohol and other addictive drugs is influenced by genetic factors, by the ready availability of drugs in Mark's neighborhood, and by Mark's failure to accurately assess the risks associated with drug usage. An understanding of Mark's difficulties within the framework of multiple levels of analysis is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach

José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of

endorphins

Which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?

nicotine

Prolonged and excessive drinking can shrink the brain most intensely in ________ who have ________ of a stomach enzyme that digests alcohol

women; less

Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true?

REM sleep deprivation results in a REM rebound

Chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands are called

hormones

Jason's intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of

endorphins

Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. It is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from

sleep apnea

People who can hear usually process spoken language with the ________ hemisphere. Deaf people usually process sign language with the ________ hemisphere.

left; left

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates

selective attention

A brief 15- to 30-minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most closely associated with the use of

cocaine

Direct stimulation of the motor cortex would most likely result in

movement of the mouth and lips

A PET scan of a sleeping person's brain reveals increased activity in the amygdala of the limbic system. This most likely indicates that the sleeper

is in REM sleep

Consciousness is to unconsciousness as ________ is to ________.

serial processing; parallel processing

The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger

selective attention

The master gland of the endocrine system is the

pituitary gland

Research participants picked one of two photographed faces as more attractive. When researchers cleverly switched the photos, participants readily explained why they preferred the face they had actually rejected. Their behavior illustrated

choice blindness

An axon is

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body

Cocaine and crack produce a euphoric rush by

blocking the reuptake of dopamine in brain cells

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

90 minutes

The pituitary gland releases a growth hormone during

slow-wave sleep

How a particular psychoactive drug affects a person depends on

the dosage and form in which the drug is taken, the user's expectations and personality, and the situation in which the drug is taken

The brain waves associated with REM sleep are most similar to those of

Stage 1 sleep

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

seeing; hearing

As Inge recalled her dream, she was dancing with a tall, dark, and handsome gentleman when suddenly the music shifted to loud rock and the man disappeared. According to Freud, Inge's account represents the ________ content of her dream.

manifest

After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his

association areas

Females with a history of physical abuse are at ________ risk for substance addiction. Those with a history of eating disorders are at risk for ________ substance addiction.

increased; increased

Josef, a high school student, tells his therapist that he has had a recurring dream in which he hunts and kills a ferocious tiger. The therapist explains that the dream reflects Josef's unresolved feelings of hostility toward his father. According to Freud, the therapist is revealing the possible ________ content of Josef's dream.

latent

One plausible theory suggests that hypnosis relieves pain by

distracting attention

REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

Alana suffered a brain disease that destroyed major portions of her temporal lobes. Alana is most likely to suffer some loss of

auditory perception

François was dismayed to discover that some of his football teammates were using drugs to enhance their footwork and endurance on the playing field. Which of the following drugs were the players most likely using?

amphetamines

After 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in

mental processes

African-American teens have ________ rates of smoking and ________ rates of cocaine use than other U.S. teens.

lower; lower

The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by accelerating the release of

acetylcholine

Mice with ________ levels of ________ are especially likely to be attracted to alcohol.

low; NPY

Circadian rhythms are the

regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule

Which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath?

axon

The depolarization of an axon is most likely to occur when

positively charged ions rush into the axon

Evidence suggests that we consolidate our memories of recent life events through

REM sleep

Physical pain and intense cravings indicate

physical dependence

With the approach of night, our body temperatures begin to drop. This best illustrates the dynamics of the

circadian rhythm

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

dopamine

Which of the following preventive measures would have the greatest impact on average life expectancy?

eliminating smoking

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