chronic bronchitis, emphysema
2 major components of COPD
productive cough, expectoration
bronchitis has chronic...
3 mo period, 2 consecutive years
bronchitis is diagnosed when the condition has persisted for this period of time
(and has excluded other causes
GER, asthma, postnasal drip)
abnormal permanent enlargement of airspaces beyond terminal bronchiole
emphysema presents with destructive changes here
modifiable risk factor for COPD
a1 anti trypsin deficiency
protein lack that has a strong link to emphysema
inhaling pollutants cuases
these structures in the bronchial wall do this
airway is obstructed by this
distal to the obstruction
air gets trapped distal to the obstruction
have hyperinflation (too much air in the lungs) which abnormally increases...
respiratory tract infections
stagnant bronchial secretions predispose the patient to recurrent...
bronchial walls become...
COPD leads to these bad things
right ventricular hypertrophy
cor pulmonale causes this heart defect
(d/t chronic lung disorders)
the thing that caused the cor pulmonale
breathing trouble typical to COPD
increased AP thorax diameter gives appearance of...
breath and heart sounds are often...
expired air forced through a narrow airway causes this adventitious breath sound
the other abnormal breath sound besides wheezing
known as the "blue bloater" b/c of this
common sign of long term hypoxemia
with digital clubbing the tips of the fingers and toes become this
respiratory tract infections (RTI's)
prevent or aggressively manage these
flu, pneumonia (shots)
prophylactic immunizations to get
tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin