PTH 122 Pulmonary pg 10, 11, 12 COPD ~

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chronic bronchitis, emphysema

2 major components of COPD

productive cough, expectoration

bronchitis has chronic...

3 mo period, 2 consecutive years

bronchitis is diagnosed when the condition has persisted for this period of time

(and has excluded other causes
GER, asthma, postnasal drip)

emphysema

abnormal permanent enlargement of airspaces beyond terminal bronchiole

alveolar walls

emphysema presents with destructive changes here

cigarette smoking

modifiable risk factor for COPD

a1 anti trypsin deficiency

protein lack that has a strong link to emphysema

chronic inflammation

COPD
inhaling pollutants cuases

glands, hypertrophy

COPD
these structures in the bronchial wall do this

excessive secretions

COPD
airway is obstructed by this

distal to the obstruction

COPD
air gets trapped distal to the obstruction

reserve volume

COPD
have hyperinflation (too much air in the lungs) which abnormally increases...

alveolar collapse

atelectasis

respiratory tract infections

COPD
stagnant bronchial secretions predispose the patient to recurrent...

hyperreactive

COPD
bronchial walls become...

hypoxemia, hypercapnia,
cor pulmonale

COPD leads to these bad things

right ventricular hypertrophy

cor pulmonale causes this heart defect

pulmonary hypertension
(d/t chronic lung disorders)

the thing that caused the cor pulmonale

cough

COPD
s/s
chronic...

phlegm

COPD
s/s
production of

exertional dyspnea

COPD
s/s
breathing trouble typical to COPD

barrel chest

COPD
s/s
increased AP thorax diameter gives appearance of...

distant, inaudible

COPD
s/s
breath and heart sounds are often...

wheezing

COPD
s/s
expired air forced through a narrow airway causes this adventitious breath sound

crackles

COPD
s/s
the other abnormal breath sound besides wheezing

cyanosis

COPD
s/s
known as the "blue bloater" b/c of this

digital clubbing

COPD
s/s
common sign of long term hypoxemia

broad, thick

with digital clubbing the tips of the fingers and toes become this

smoking

COPD
Rx
Stop...

respiratory tract infections (RTI's)

COPD
Rx
prevent or aggressively manage these

flu, pneumonia (shots)

COPD
Rx
prophylactic immunizations to get

tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin

COPD
Rx
ABX

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