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Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?

Fishes

Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs?

Water contains much less O2 that air per unit volume

Which of the following animals is incorrectly paired with its feeding mechanism?

lion-substrate feeder

In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from

contracting the diaphragm

To leave the digestive tract, a substance must cross a cell membrane. During which stage of food processing does this take place?

absorption

How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans?

bicarbonate ions in the plasma

Which of the following featyres do all gas exchange systems have in common?

The exchange surfaces are moist

Which of the following describes peristalsis in the digestive system?

smooth muscles contractions that move food through the alimentary canal

To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a

four-chambered heart

Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the

left atrium

Average blood pressure is lowest in which structures?

venae cavae

Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply?

The tracheal system of an insect

What part(s) of the digestive system have secretions with a pH of 2?

stomach

What is the substrate of salivary amylase?

starch

Which of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling through alveolar capillaries? (Hb= hemoglobin)

Hb + 4 O2 = Hb(O2)4

atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mmHg. Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2)?

160 mmHg

Which of the following hormone actions will occur when more energy is required by a human?

Blood glucagon increases

Where are the semilunar valves to be found in the mammalian heart?

At the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries

Which of the following is an advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity?

Specialized regions are possible

Where are the agents that help emulsify fat produced?

#9 (AKA- Liver)

Which structure is home to bacteria that produces vitamins as by-products of their metabolism?

#5 (AKA- Large intestine)

Where does the complete digestion of carbohydrates occur?

#4 only! (AKA- small intestine)

Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?

Vitamin A

In general, herbivorous mammals have molars modified for

grinding

Pulse is a direct measure of

heart rate

How does the digestion and absorption of fat differ from that of carbohydrates?

Most absorbed fat first enters the lymphatic system, whereas carbohydrates directly enter the blood

Which of the following is correct for a blood pressure reading of 130/80?
I. The systolic pressure is 130
II. The diastolic pressure is 80
III. The blood pressure during heart contraction is 80

I and II only.

When more nergy sources areneeded than are generated by diet, in which order does the animal draw on stored sources?

liver glycogen, muscle glycogen, fat

A blood vessel has the following characteristics: outer layer of connective tissue, a thick layer of smooth muscle with elastic fibers, no valves. It is which of the following?

An artery

The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein?

Fibrin

Which of the following are adaptations to a carnivorous diet?

bile salts

In which of the following groups woul.d you expect to find a relatively long cecum?

herbivores

Which of the following organs is INCORRECTLY paired with its function?

large intestine-bile production

In which blood vessel is glucose concentration likely to vary the most?

hepatic portal vein

The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate?

carbon dioxide

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