Sociology - Exam 1

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sociology

The scientific study of groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to the analysis of the industrialized world.

sociological imagination

We "think ourselves away" from the familiar routine in order to
see things in a different, more sociological perspective.

social norms

People who are shaped by the social structure are constantly reconstructing those same social structures.

globalization

Rapid process of social change creating connections
between the local and the rest of the world.

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An important factor behind the emergence of sociological thinking.

social facts

Emile Durkheim described society as a set of independent parts, each of which could be studied separately using ______________.

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A theoretical perspective that holds the grand narratives that gave meaning to history in the past no longer make any sense.

economic issues

The early sociology theorists often differed in their analyses of social behavior and
social institutions. Nevertheless, Comte, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber strove to explain the new relationships that emerged as an outgrowth of the ___________.

microsociology

Examines everyday human social interactions on a small scale in order to illuminate broad institutional patterns. (Ex. The interactions of directors in a boardroom.)

culture

Consists of the values, norms, and material goods characteristics of a given group. They possess a "design for living" or "tool kit" of practices, knowledge and symbols acquired through learning.

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Method of analysis that allows us to compare symbolic cultural meanings of such physical structures.

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Type of society where there is very little inequality, no divisions of rich and poor, few differences in power, emphasis on cooperation rather than competition, participatory decision making, and an elaborate ceremonial life.

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Type of society where the development of larger cities, pronounced inequality in wealth and power, rule by kings and emperors, written language, and flourishing art and science.

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Type of society that saw the advent of the nation-state.

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_________ was the central process shaping the social geography of the modern world.

individual achievement

Most accurately describes the dominant American value system.

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Best explains why different groups of people created different cultures.

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When parents remind their children they should not chew with their mouths open, the
parents are engaging in the process of _________.

symbolic interactionalism

According to George Herbert Mead, children develop a sense of self by ___________.

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Social scientists have developed alternative theories of child development. However, all
theories of child socialization share a common understanding of ___________.

existence of norms

An agent of socialization.

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A character of television that most significantly has an effect on children's behavior.

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The stage in the development process in which gender socialization begins.

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Determines the stages of the socialization process.

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Characterizes the trend in which certain stages in the life course expand, and others contract.

adult socialization

The process of in adulthood of learning the practices and expectations associated with a social role or social circumstances.

aging

The combination of biological, psychological, and social processes that affect people as they grow.

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Behavior in which people pass each other, but do not engage in extended eye contact.

Ethnomethodology

The study of how people make sense of what others say and do in the course of day-to-day social interaction.

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Harold Garfinkel conducted experiments in which students were encouraged to pursue
the precise meaning of general or casual comments. The intent was to uncover the ________ that people use to structure and organize everyday conversation.

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A male street person repeatedly tries to initiate conversation with a female upper-class
person, despite her obvious unwillingness to respond. This is an example of ___________.

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A student drops a spoon on the floor as she carries her dish to the kitchen. As the spoon
clatters loudly on the tile floor she exclaims, "Ooooooh, sorry!" This is an example of a ____________.

encounter

A meeting between two or more people in a situation of face-to-face interaction.

social position

Another term for this is your given status.

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A status that is earned through the persons own effort is called a(n) __________.

face-to-face interactions decrease

A disadvantage of electronic communication is __________.

intimate distance

Up to 1 and a half feet of space reserved for few social contacts.

personal distance

From 1 and a half to 4 feet of space for encounters with friends and close acquaintances.

social distance

From 4 to 12 feet of space is reserved for formal settings such as interviews.

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People in modern societies depend on ________ to take care of everything from how we
are born, to our daily supply of running water and even to the way we die.

rule of experts

Max Weber's ideal type of bureaucracy.

McDonaldization of Society

Refers to the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurants are coming to dominate American society. Runs on the 4 principles: efficiency, calculability, uniformity, and control through automation.

public distance

Beyond 12 feet of space reserved for a person performing to an audience for example.

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