AP Biology Chapter 23

21 terms by wolfer09

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Sympatric

Speciation that occurs within one area - some factor other than geographical separation has prevented free interbreeding between members of the species.

Subspecies

populations of the same species that differ genetically because of adaptations to different living conditions

Gene pools

the combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

Biological Species Concept

a species concept defining a species as a population or group thereof whose members potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Reproductively isolated

pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other groups.

Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms

includes: temporal, behavioral, mechanical, and ecological

Prezygotic Isolating Mechanisms

Occurs before fertilization, prevents reproduction, prevents genotypes from entering gene pools

Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms

anatomical or physiological difference between 2 species that prevents successful reproduction after mating has taken place

Pheromones

Chemicals secreted by animal species that influence the behavior of other animals of the same species

Temporal Isolation

form of reproductive isolation in which two populations reproduce at different times

Mechanical Isolation

morphological differences can prevent successful mating

Prevention of Gamete Fusion

Gametes of one species function poorly with the gametes of another species or within the reproductive tract of another species.

Allopatric

occurring in separate locations, describes populations that rarely interbreed because they are separated geographically

polyploidy

A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.

autopolyploidy

An organism having more than two sets of chromosomes, all of which were derived from the same species (self-fertilization).

allopolyploidy

Extra sets of chromosomes come from different species, arise from hybridization, new chromosomes have no homologues, can create new species if followed by autopolyploidy

adaptive radiation

process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways

character displacement

The tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.

gradualism

The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily

Punctuated equilibrium

pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change

mass extinctions

mass destruction of most species

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