APUSH Unit 10

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Chapter 39

The Stormy Sixties, 1960-68

Lyndon Baines Johnson

Kennedy's VP;"Great Society"; , 1963-1969 Democrat; 36

Robert F. Kennedy

Presidential election in 1968

Robert McNamara

Secretary of defense during Vietnam

Lee Harvey Oswald

assassin of JFK

Barry Goldwater

1964 election, Republican s. LBJ

Stokely Carmichael

Black Nationalist; coined the phrase "Black Power"; violence

J. William Fulbright

head of Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Criticized Vietnam war

Eugene McCarthy

Democratic party in the 1968 election

Hubert Humphrey

Democratic party in the 1968 election

Richard Nixon

Republican, 37th, Vietnamization; Detente; Watergate;

George Wallace

1968 presidential election

Flexible Response

Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat

Credibility Gap

The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support

New Frontier

JFK; 1960 election; fix the economy and reform education, health care, and civil rights.

Peace Corps

send volunteers to help developing nations;JFK

Vienna Summit

Kennedy met with Soviet Premier Khrushchev

Trade Expansion Act

authorized tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with Common Market countries

Viet Cong

North Vietnam forces

Alliance for Progress

offered assistance to Latin American countries

Bay of Pigs

JFK; cuban rebels fight and lose

Great Society

LBJ; Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

presidential authority to "take all necessary measures" to stop foreign agression

Civil Rights Act of 1964

no discrimination by employers; Gov. enforcement in public places

Cuban Missile Crisis

really really really tense time in Cold War; U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba;JFK demanded their removal, announced a naval blockade of the island; USSR removes them after a week

Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

ended the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere

March on Washington

1963; support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. MLK gave "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people

24th Amendment

Eliminated the poll tax

Voting Rights Act

1965; right to vote for ALL Americans; provided for federal intervention

Operation Rolling Thunder

bombing campaign over North Vietnam; lots and lots o' bombs

Pueblo Incident

North Korean capture of a US Navy spy ship; crew imprisoned

Tet Offensive

Viet Cong huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet); month of fighting and thousands of casualties;

Counterculture

hippies

Chapter 40

The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980

Henry Kissinger

meet secretly on Nixon's behalf with NV officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam; Detente

Sam Ervin

chairman of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate Presidential Campaign Practices during Watergate

Spiro Agnew

Nixon's VP, resigned b/c Watergate

Daniel Ellsberg

1971; released the Pentagon Papers

Warren Burger

Supreme Court justice;Nixon;conservative but Roe vs. Wade.

George McGovern

democrat; 1972 election

John Dean

White House aide; testified during Watergate

Rachel Carson

Wrote Silent Spring; anti-pesticides

Gerald Ford

became president after Nixon resigned;38th; pardoned Nixon; end of US involvement in Vietnam

Jimmy Carter

Camp David Accords b/twn Israel and Eygpt; 39th; embargo on grain shipments, boycotted the 1980 Olympics, in response to USSR war in Afghanistan;

Shah of Iran

overthrown in 1979

Ayatollah Khomeini

religious leader; leader of Iran 1979; Iranian hostage crisis; Iran-Iraq War.

Leonid Brezhnev

after Khrushchev; leader of USSR 1964; forces in Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.

Detente

relaxing of tensions; Nixon plays nicely with China and USSR

Revenue Sharing

share federal taxes with states

Executive Privilege

right of the president to withhold info from Congress; limited by U.S. v. Nixon

Vietnamization

reduce US troops; more fighting for South Vietnamese troops

Nixon Doctrine

Vietnam War;US would honor existing commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars w/o American troops

My Lai Massacre

1968; troops killed innocent women and children in the village of My Lai

Cambodian Incursion

Nixon orders troops to invade Cambodia; po'd congress and everyone else

Kent State Killings

1970; police kill 4 students during a protest against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia w/o consulting Congress

26th Amendment

lowered the voting age to 18

Philadelphia Plan

required unions working for the feds. to establish "goals and timetables" for minority employees; affirmative action

Environmental Protection Agency

lower pollution; Nixon; tried to destroy Springfield

Pentagon Papers

secret government documents; revealed that the government had misled public about the vietnam war.

ABM Treaty

Detente treaty; limit antiballistic missiles

SALT

US and USSR limit both countries' nuclear weapons

MIRVs

"multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles designed to overcome any defense by 'saturating' it with large number of warheads"; in response to SALT

Southern Strategy

...

Watergate Scandal

republicans spying on democrats; paying bribes; using CIA, FBI, IRS; Nixon involved; lots of cover-up

CREEP

committee for the reelection of something rather...; watergate

Enemies List

watergate; people republican's wanted "taken care of"

Saturday Night Massacre

dismissing of a lot of officials connected to Watergate

War Powers Act

Notify Congress w/thn 48 hours of deployment; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; limit presidential powers

Title IX

public schools/etc can't deny on basis of gender

Equal Rights Amendment

constitutional amendment; passed by Congress but never ratified; would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender

Bakke case

affirmative action is constitutional

SALT II

Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks; Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced; Not passed by the Senate in retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan

Energy Crisis

B/c US backed Israel; OPEC embargos oil to US; gas prices soar

Helsinki Accords

Political/human rights agreement signed in Finland, by the USSR and other west European countries.

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; limited oil supplies in 70s causing the energy crisis

Iranian Hostage Crisis

militants capture US embassy in Iran and hold hostages for like 3 years

Chapter 41

The Resurgence of Conservatism, 1980-2000

Edward Kennedy

lost Democratic primary of 1980

Ronald Reagan

40th; Moral Majority; Reagonomics; Great Communicator; 1981-1989

Sandra Day O'Connor

first female Supreme Court Justice; Reagan

George Herbert Walker Bush

41; Desert Storm; 1989-1993

Bill Clinton

1993-2001; 42nd; NAFTA; balanced federal budget; federal surplus;

George Walker Bush

2001-2009; 43rd president

John Anderson

independent; 1980 election

Anwar Sadat

Egyptian president who made peace with Israel

Mikhail Gorbachev

end to the Cold War; major domestic reforms; USSR

Walter Mondale

1984 election; democrat

Jerry Falwell

Leader of the Religious Right

Jesse Jackson

civil rights leader; 1988 election

Geraldine Ferraro

1984; first woman on a major-party presidential ticket;Walter Modale.

Boris Yetsin

president of Russia

Saddam Hussein

Iraq; invaded Kuwait

Norman Schwartzkopf

Operation Desert Storm

Clarence Thomas

2nd African American Supreme Court Justice; scandal on sexual harassment

Ross Perot

3rd party; 92 and 96

Hillary Rodham Clinton

headed a Task Force on National Health Care Reform; I love her pantsuits

Newt Gingrich

why isn't he dead; Republican speaker in the House; conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency.

Robert Dole

1996 Republican

John McCain

he's really old; 2000

Monica Lewinsky

;)

Al Gore

clinton's VP

"Supply-Side" Economics

cut taxes; more money in hands; trickle down

Parestroika

fixing social and economic problems; opened markets

Glasnost

openness;Gorbachev; freedom of speech;

New Religious Right

against affirmative action, abortion, feminism,

"Ethnic Cleansing"

the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area

Moral Majority

anti-feminism; anti-affirmative action; conservative evangelical

Reganomics

cut taxes; take away from social programs and give to Defense; stopped 70s inflation; increased deficit

Sandinistas

overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979; socialist; US financed armed opposition by the Contras

Iran-Contra Affair

arms sales to the Middle East and give money to help the Contras in Nicaragua;Agianst congress; Poindexter and North; supposed to get hostages also

Contras

Nicaragua; opposed the Sandinistas; supported by US

Grenada Invasion

Reagan send army to the island of Grenada, where a Marxists had come to power; shows dominance of the US in the Carribbean

Yuppies

young, urban professionals; symbolized the increased pursuit of wealth/materialism of the 1980s.

Strategic Defense Initiative

"Star Wars,";Reagan's; proposed the construction of a defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles from outer space

Roe v. Wade

legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy

Persian Gulf War

Fought against Iraq to free Kuwait from invaders

Americans with Disabilities Act

1991; banned discrimination against the disabled in employment; easy access to all public and commerical buildings;

27th Amendment

regulates pay raises for members of Congress

Contract with America

1994; Newt Gingrich; Republican candidates pledged their support for a balanced budget; term limits for members of Congress; and a middle-class tax cut.

Hopwood v. Texas

reverses Affirmative action in Bakke case

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada; Clinton

World Trade Organization

regulates international trade; Clinton

Columbine High School

2 kids shooting at school

Whitewater Land Corporations

Clinton's failed real estate investment

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

more regulation of abortions

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