What are the basic characteristics of human language?
Phonemes: the smallest units of sound
Morphemes: the smallest meaningful units of language
a system for converting deep structure into surface structure
the meaning of a sentence
how a sentence is worded
A set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
Describe the behaviorist theory of language
we learn to talk through reinforcement, shaping, extinction, and the basic principals of operant conditioning (bf skinner)
Describe the nativist theory of language
the view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity
Describe the interactionalist theory
Even though you are born with an innate ability to acquire language, social interactions play a critical role in language.
Skinner and Chomsky's contributions to the nature vs nurture debate over how children develop language.
Skinner: Behaviorist theory
Chomsky: Nativist theory
Role of babbling
Natural part of language development. ?
What is the wug test?
Test children on how they apply grammar rules
Do deff infants exhibit similar stages of learning with sign language?
Yes, they babble with there hands.
Do animals and humans share the capacity for language?
Animals can't speak because of there vocal tracts. Animals can only learn up to about 100 words. They don't understand grammatical structure.
Language and critical period
Childhood is a critical period for acquiring language.
Word superiority effect
better at recognizing letters when they are a part of a word
units of sound; single letters of combinations of letters
units of meaning; usually syllables or words
The core features that category members share; a given member of the category may have some but not necessarily all of these features.
the best or most typical member of a category
we make category judgements by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category.
A well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to the problem
A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached.
items more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
the tendency to answer a question differently when it is phrased differently
the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed
sunken cost effect
our tendency to make a decision based on what we have previously invested in the situation
What is reasoning?
A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.
what is insight?
the sudden realization of the solution to a problem
The ability to detect one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experiences
Standford-Binet IQ test
Adaptive, different for different age groups
Wechsler IQ test
• Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)- for children up to age 16
• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Raven IQ test
A culture-reduced test
o A measure of abstract reasoning abilities
Relationship between IQ test and intelligence
"natural intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure a child's aptitude for learning independent of the child's prior educational achievement. IQ test predicts future success
Spearman's psychometric approach and the g factor
Observed clustering of correlations and proposed there were few primary mental abilities that were stable and independent. Every task requires general ability (g) and skills that are specific to the task (s)
reasoning and applying information
acquired skills and knowledge
gardeners theory of multiple intelligences
-interpersonal (other people)
sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence
- Analytical intelligence
- Creative intelligence
- Practical intelligence
brain and intelligence
- Correlation of .4 between brain size and IQ
- Higher IQ children showed slower growth in prefrontal cortex
required to find connections between old and new information, combine facts that seem unrelated and see the "big picture"
Standardization of IQ tests
process of establishing rules for administering a test and for interpreting the scores
distribution of IQ scores
the normal curve
most around 100
the Flynn effect
raw scores in IQ tests have increased over the years
repeatability of its scores
the degree to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure
How does heredity and environment effect IQ scores?
Intelligence is passed on through genes.
Stability of scores
scores tend to increase between adolescence and middle age and then decline from then on.
Gender and ethnic differences
IQ test can be culturally bias. Test taking situations can also be biased, like having to report race.
Men test better than women on visual spacial tasks.
Women outperform men in language tasks.
The question of bias
How can you make an IQ test that is completely un biased
What does a developmental psychologist study?
The study of continuity and change across a life span
Major issues of developmental psychology
Is it genetic or environmental?
A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both the sperm and the egg
Embryonic stage is the period of prenatal development that last from the 2nd week to about the 8th week.
The fetal stage is the period from 9 weeks to birth
how teratogens affect development during the different stages
agents that develop the process of development, such as drugs and alcohol. The central nervous system remains vulnerable throughout the whole pregnancy.
Abilities of a new born and how researchers asses the cognitive and sensory development
born with innate reflexes
developmental changes in a babies brain
Differentiation: cells develop into distinctive neuron types.
Maturation: orderly sequence of biological growth process.
Outline motor development sequence from birth to toddlerhood, and evaluate the effects of maturation and experience on that sequence.
Motor development is the emergence of abilities to do physical actions.
Born with reflexes, such as grasping and sucking
Cephalicaudal rule: motor skills develop top to bottom
Proximodistal rule: inside to out
State Piaget's understanding of how the mind develops, and discuss the importance of assimilation and accommodation in this process.
Schema: an organized way of interacting with objects in the world
Assimilation: applying an old schema to new objects or problems
Accommodation: modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem
Outline Piaget's four main stages of cognitive development, and comment on how children's thinking changes during these four stages.
Sensorimotor (birth-2): infant experiences the world through movement and senses. Begins to act intentionally and show understanding of object permanence.
Preoperational (2-6): acquires motor skills. Begins stage thinking egocentrically and ends with basic understanding of other minds,
Concrete operational (6-11): Can think logically about objects and events and can understand conservation of physical properties.
Formal operational (11 and up): Can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals.
Define stranger anxiety.
fear of strangers by infants starting around 8 months old (peaks at 13 months)
Discuss the effects of nourishment, body contact, and familiarity on infant social attachment. (Remember: Harlow's monkeys)
first 6 months baby reaches out for anyone but then person who cares for them most becomes there primary caregiver and form an attachment with them.
Trace the onset and development of children's self-concept.
Self concept: sense of own identity
Self awareness: when recognize self in the mirror Self recognition: 18 month and older children have developed sense of "self"
Define adolescence. Identify the major physical changes during adolescence.
The period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity. Changes in bodily structures involved in reproduction.
• Describe the similarities or differences in how teenagers and adults identify emotions in others.
Teens use the amygdala which guides gut reactions.
Adults use frontal cortex, which governs reasoning and planning.
• Discuss Kohlberg's moral development from the perspectives of moral thinking, moral feeling, and moral action. (Trolley dilemma)
o Pre-conventional morality- based on fear of punishment or desire for reward
o Conventional morality- based on opinions of others or formal laws
o Post-conventional morality- based on abstract principles underlying right and wrong
• Identify Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development and their accompanying issues.
oral sensory: trust vs mistrust
Muscular anal: autonomy vs shame/doubt
locomotor: initiative vs guilt
latency: industry vs inferiority
adolescence: identity vs role confusion
young adulthood: intimacy vs isolation
middle adulthood: generatively vs stagnation
maturity: ego integrity vs despair
• Explain how the search for identity affects us during adolescence, and discuss how forming an identity prepares us for intimacy.
teens are reckless rebels who are compelled to do things to demonstrate adulthood (smoking, drinking)
The onset of sexual interest in adolescence prepares for intimacy.
• What is meant by sexual orientation? How is this different from sexual identity?
Sexual orientation: Whether a person is oriented toward the same or the opposite sex
Sexual Identity: What sex a person is more likely to identify with
What role do genes play in homosexuality?
Play a factor but aren't the only factor.
• Contrast parental and peer influences during adolescence.
As children they are tied to there parents, then when adolescence hits they become oriented towards there peers and develop there own values and beliefs. Adolescence tend to have aspirations and values that are similar to there parents.
• Discuss the characteristics of emerging adulthood.
Physical abilities peak
• Compare life expectancy in the mid-twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, and discuss changes in sensory abilities and health (including frequency of dementia) in older adults.
As your brain ages, your prefrontal cortex will deteriorate more quickly.
It is responsible for controlling task that require effort, initiative, and strategy.
Decline in there ability to retrieve info.
• Assess the impact of aging on recall and recognition in adulthood.
Older adults show a greater decline on tests of retrieval than on tests of recognition.
• Discuss the importance of love, marriage, and children in adulthood, and comment on the contribution of one's work to feelings of self-satisfaction.
Older adults become more selective about there interaction partners, spending more time with family and close friends than large groups of people.
• Describe trends in people's life satisfaction across the life span.
Old people tend to be happier
• Define personality
An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
• Explain the difference between describing what people are like and why people are the way they are.
What people are like: individual differences of personality
Why people are the way they are: prior events and experience motivate people to act in a certain way.
• Describe self-report measures of personality & projective measures of personality
Self report: true false
Projective: ink blots
• What is the trait approach to studying personality?
Uses trait terms to characterize differences among individuals.
• Describe and give examples for each of the Big Five personality dimensions.
Openness to experience (imaginative, down to earth)
Conscientiousness (organized, disorganized)
Extraversion (social, retiring)
Agreeableness (softhearted, ruthless)
Neuroticism (worried, calm)
• Explain the heritability of personality traits.
The more genes you have in common with someone the more similar your personalities will be.
About half of variability among individuals result from genetic factors, and the other half results from experience.
• Compare the behavioral activation system and the behavioral inhibition system.
Behavioral activation system: sensitivity to reward and approach motivation
Behavioral inhibition system: sensitivity to punishment and avoidance motivation
• According to the psychodynamic perspective what is the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind?
Conscious: in awareness at any given moment
Preconscious:aspects of mental life that are outside awareness but could easily enter consciousness
Unconscious: hidden memories, the persons deepest instincts and desires, and the persons inner struggle to control these forces.
• Describe the functions/properties of the id, ego, and superego.
Id: conscious mind, source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses
Ego: preconscious mind, enables us to deal with lives practical demands
Superego: unconscious mind: reflects the internalization of cultural rules.
• What are the differences between the pleasure principle and the reality principle?
Pleasure principle: the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification.
Reality principle: the regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying needs and function effectively in the real world.
• Describe and give examples for the seven defense mechanisms.
Defense mechanisms- unconscious coping mechanism that reduces anxiety
o Rationalization- concocting a seemingly logical reason or excuse for behavior that might otherwise be shameful
o Displacement- shifting the attention of emotion from one object to another
o Projection- attributing unacceptable qualities of the self to someone else
o Reaction formation- warding off an uncomfortable thought by overemphasizing its opposite
o Regression- apparent return to more juvenile way of behaving
o Identification- helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope
o Sublimation- channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
• Explain the humanist process of self-actualization, peak experiences, and unconditional positive regard.
human nature is essentially good
What is meant by the locus of control?
a person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment
• Describe the self-concept in terms of self-narrative, self-schemas, and self-verification.
Self concept: knowledge of ones behavior, traits and personal characteristics
Self narrative : a story we tell about ourselves
Self schemas: traits people use to define themselves
Self verification: the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self concept
Give examples of sources of self-esteem. What is the difference between self-esteem and self-concept?
Self concept: knowledge of own behavior, traits and personal characteristics.
Self esteem: extent to which you like, value and accept yourself
What is the self-serving bias? How does it relate to narcissism?
Self serving bias: tendency to take credit for success but not for failures
Narcissism: seeks admiration from others
the need to be good, to be fully alive, and to find meaning in life.
altered states of consciousness in which the person losses sense of time and feels in touch with a higher aspect of human life.
unconditional positive regard
an attitude of nonjudgmental acceptance toward another person