Do memories reside in single, specific spots?
Where is it thought that memories occur?
In the synapses; e.g., a slug produces more serotonin at the synapses when it learns.
Increased synaptic efficiency makes for...
more efficient neural circuits.
Define long-term potentiation (LTP)
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Info on long-term potentiation (LTP)
Provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations.
*Drugs that block LTP interfere with learning.
*With repeated neural firing, a nerve cell's genes produce synapse-strengthening proteins, enabling LTP.
What does glutamate do?
A neurotransmitter that enhances synaptic communication.
After LTP has occurred, passing an electric current through the brain does what?
Wont disrupt old memories, but the current will disrupt new memories.
When we're excited or stressed, emotion-trigered stress hormones do what?
Make glucose energy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened. The host activity in the amygdala and available proteins in the brain's memory forming areas.
Stronger emotional experiences make for....
stronger more reliable memories.
Define flashbulb memories.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Examples of flashbulb memories..
Where you were when 9/11 happened.
How does stress act like acid..
Prolonged stress corrodes neural connections and shrinks the hippocampus that is vital for laying down memories.
The loss of memory
info on H.M.
Lost conscious memory, but can still unconsciously remember things.
Define implicit memory
Retention independent of conscious recollection
Define explicit memory
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
Info on implicit and explicit memory...
Having read a story once, a person will read it faster a second time, showing implicit memory. But there will be no explicit memory, for they cannot recall having seen the story before.
A neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
What happens when left or right hippocampus are damaged..
The left disrupts verbal information memory while the right disrupts visual design or location memory
Is the hippocampus active during sleep?
Yes, during slow-wave sleep.
What does the cerebellum play a role in?
The formation and storage of implicit memories created by classical conditioning.
What is infantile amnesia..
The implicit reactions and skills we learned in infancy reach far into our future, yet as adults we recall nothing (explicitly) of our first three years.