Chapter 21 - The Immue System

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Which of the following is/are not a part of the innate immune defenses?
Fever
Inflammation
T cells
Natural killer (NK) cells

T cells

What constitutes the body's first line of defense against disease?
intact skin and mucous membranes
the adaptive defense system
antimicrobial proteins and various phagocytic cells
inflammation

intact skin and mucous membranes

Proinflammatory signals include all of the following except:
leukotrienes.
antibodies.
prostaglandins.
histamines.

antibodies.

____________ is the final step of phagocyte mobilization.
Leukocytosis
Chemotaxis
Margination
Diapedesis

Chemotaxis

Which of the following is a role of interferons (IFNs)?
IFNs stimulate the release of histamine.
IFNs help the body combat viral infections.
IFNs activate helper T cells by presenting antigens.
IFNs stimulate antibody production in response to a bacterial infection.

IFNs help the body combat viral infections.

Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?
Fever
Tissue repair
Opsonization
T cell activation

Opsonization

Pyrogens induce __________.
opsonization
fever
cytolysis
inflammation

fever

Cellular immunity is attributed to the action of:
complement proteins.
antibodies.
interferons.
T cells.

T cells.

Which of the following is NOT a nonspecific internal defense against disease?
NK cells
inflammation
phagocytes
T cells

T cells

Which defense mechanism results in redness, heat, pain, and swelling?
inflammation
cell-mediated immunity
phagocytosis
antibody production

inflammation

Which antimicrobial protein is produced by a virus-infected cell?
histamine
pyrogen
interferon
complement

interferon

Which of the following does not serve as an antigen-presenting cell?
Natural killer cells
Macrophages
B cells
Dendritic cells

Natural killer cells

T cells achieve self-tolerance in the _______.
thymus
tonsils
bone marrow
lymph node

thymus

Choose the true statement regarding the primary versus the secondary immune response.
A primary response leads to higher levels of antibodies than does a secondary response.
A primary response results when naïve lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.
The antibodies produced in a primary response bind to antigens more efficiently than the antibodies produced in a secondary immune response.
A primary response occurs faster than a secondary response.

A primary response results when naïve lymphocytes are activated, while a secondary response is a result of activating memory cells.

___________ immunity protects a baby who is fed breast milk.
Artificial active
Natural passive
Artificial passive
Natural active

Natural passive

Which of the following does NOT describe the adaptive immune response?
It is specific.
It has memory.
It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material.
It is systemic.

It occurs immediately after the body is challenged by foreign material.

What mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?
pyrogens
antigens
interferons
MHC proteins

MHC proteins

Which cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces where they can be recognized by cells that will deal with them?
plasma cells
T lymphocytes
dendritic cells
NK cells

dendritic cells

________ is the most abundant class of antibodies in plasma.

IgM
IgG
IgA
IgE

IgG

________ are lymphocytes that directly kill virus infected cells.
Macrophages
B cells
T cytotoxic cells
T helper cells

T cytotoxic cells

Antigens bound to MHC II activate:
macrophages.
T helper cells.
B cells.
T cytotoxic cells

T helper cells.

Why are children given vaccinations?
to develop antibodies against various diseases
to develop a disease in a mild state rather than have it later on in a more serious state
to see whether the immune system is capable of defense against disease
to activate the cell-mediated defense against pathogens

to develop antibodies against various diseases

What occurs if a T cell binds to an antigen and the T cell does not receive a co-stimulatory signal?
The T cell enters a state of anergy.
The T cell releases interleukins.
The T cell is activated.
The T cell becomes a memory cell.

The T cell enters a state of anergy.

_______ are lymphocytes that coordinate cellular and humoral immune responses.
B cells
T helper cells
T cytotoxic cells
Regulatory T cells

T helper cells

Which class of tissue graft is the least likely to be accepted by a patient's body?
Allograft
Autograft
Xenograft
Isograft

Xenograft

Which is mismatched?
AIDS: T helper cells are destroyed by a virus
Severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID): genetic defect resulting in a shortage of B and/or T cells
Multiple sclerosis: autoimmune disorder
Immediate hypersensitivity: allergic contact dermatitis

Immediate hypersensitivity: allergic contact dermatitis

Fever is one of the cardinal signs of inflammation.

false

Which cell of the immune system is absolutely required for an adaptive immune response?
helper T cell
cytotoxic T cell
antigen-presenting cell
B cell

helper T cell

What types of antigen are recognized by T cells?

free antigens
bacterial antigens only
cancer antigens only
processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells

processed fragments of protein antigens displayed on surfaces of body cells

MHC I proteins (major histocompatibility class I proteins) are found on most cells of the body.

True

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