full-body-covering garment that most Iranian women have to wear.
a style of leadership that emphasizes the personal magnetism of a single individual.
religious beliefs of a literal nature that often lead to right-wing political views.
guardianship of the jurist
developed by Ayatollah Khomeini, supports the notion that senior clerics have the best capacity to rule in a Muslim society.
image of the enemy
psychological concept that focuses on stereotyping one's adversary.
Muslims who are convinced that their faith should dominate politically.
title of the rulers of Iran before the 1979 Islamic revolution.
Islamic legal code that many argue should supersede civil law in countries such as Iran and Nigeria.
Minority Muslim sect, usually seen as more militant than the Sunnis.
Majority Muslim sect, usually seen as more moderate than the Shiites.
Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali
Supreme Leader of Iran since the death of Ayatollah Khomeini.
reformist president of Iran, 1997-2005.
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah
Muslim cleric who led the 1979 revolution in Iran and was leader of the country until his death in 1989.
Rafsanjani, Akbar Hasemi
second president of Iran since the 1979 revolution. Running for reelection in 2005.
Shah, Mohammed Reza
the second and last Pahlevi shah of Iran; deposed in 1979.
first Pahlevi shah of Iran.
Assembly of Experts
an informal body in Iran that has de facto power over all major political decisions.
Islamic charities in Iran, many of which are controlled by the government.
begun in 1906, the first attempt to bring anything like democracy to Iran.
a half lay and half clerical body designed to smooth relations between those two communities in Iran at the highest levels.
The leading theological body in Iran for political purposes.
the Iranian parliament.
the father and son who ruled Iran for most of the twentieth century, until the revolution of 1979.
title given to the ayatollah who sits atop all Iranian political institutions.
the term used by the shah to describe reforms in Iran between the end of World War II and the downfall of his regime in 1979.
in Nigeria and elsewhere, the notion that colonial powers had to rule on their own and through local leaders at the same time.
the leading Muslim group in northern Nigeria.
the leading ethnic group in southeastern Nigeria. Often also spelled Ibo.
development strategy that uses tariffs and other barriers to imports, and therefore stimulates domestic industries.
British and other colonial procedures through which "natives" were used to carry out colonial rule.
development strategy that stresses integration into global markets, privatization, and so on. Supported by the World Bank, IMF, and other major northern financial institutions.
the leading ethnic group in southwestern Nigeria.
political outcome in which one side wins and the other loses.
International Monetary Fund
international agency that provides loans and other forms of assistance to countries with fiscal problems.
a major international lending agency for development projects based in Washington.
in Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America, a politician's personal following in a patron-client relationship.
in Europe, arrangements through which government, business, and labor leaders cooperatively set microeconomic or macroeconomic policy, normally outside of the regular electoral legislative process. In Mexico and elsewhere in the third world, another term to describe the way people are integrated into the system via patron-client relations.
the massive accumulation of loans taken out by third world countries and owed to northern banks and governments from the 1970s onward.
the way Mexican governments have used fraud to rig elections.
factory in Mexico (initially on the U.S. border, now anywhere) that operates tax-free in manufacturing goods for export.
term used to describe Mexicans of mixed racial origin.
newly industrializing country
the handful of countries, such as South Korea, that have developed a strong industrial base and grown faster than most of the third world.
neofeudal relations in which "patrons" gain the support of "clients" through the mutual exchange of benefits and obligations.
the six-year term of a Mexican president.
confederation of Mexican workers
the official trade union affiliated with the PRI.
federal election commission
the old (and corrupt) body that supervised elections in Mexico.
immigration reform and control act
U.S. law, passed in 1986, that limits the rights of immigrants, especially those from Mexico.
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
the party that governed Mexico from 1927-2000.
national action party (PAN)
the leading right-of-center opposition party in Mexico.
north American free trade agreement (NAFTA)
agreement linking the economies of Canada, Mexico, and the United States.
party of the democratic revolution
the leading left-of-center opposition party in Mexico.
Mexico's nationalized petrochemical industry.