Ability to acquire knowledge. Capacity to think and reason in the abstract. Capacity for solving problems.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
logical, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist.
Steinberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Analytical or componential, creative or experiential, practical or contextual.
Labeling Students According to Intelligence
Unfortunately IQ scores may be used as labels for some students. Minority and low SES students are mislabeled the most often.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
parent's income, occupation, levels of education, 4 classes (upper, middle, working, and lower)
Influence of Resistance Cultures on Student's Behavior
attitudes and values, rank order (ambitious, broad-minded, helpful, imaginative, independent, logical, obedient, polite, self-controlled
refers to student's ancestry and includes common history, language, value system, and set of customs and traditions.
Teacher Behavior Towards Gender Specific Students
teacher interact with boys more often than girls, teachers ask boys more questions and these are at higher levels, boys receive more approval and positive reinforcement, boys are listened to more, and girls receive less recognition and reinforcement for creativity. Boys initiate more student-teacher interactions, boys call out more in class (8 times more often), girls are less likely to handle science equipment and lead science demonstrations or experiments.
Characteristics of Students Placed at Risk
poverty and low SES, cultural minority, non-native English speaker, and mobility.
Teaching Students Placed at Risk
low achievement, lack of motivation, low self-esteem, higher dropout rate, increased rates of crime, alcoholism, and drug abuse.
Characteristics of Schools Promoting Resilience in Students Placed at Risk
productive learning environment, high expectations, involvement of all students, high quality examples, self-regulation, and motivate students.
a variation of standard English that is associated with a particular regional or social group and is distinct in vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation.
a learned characteristic that, despite adversity, raises the likelihood of success in school and later life.
Maintenance Bilingual Program
programs for ELL students that build on students' native languages by teaching in both English and the native languages.
Child's Home Culture
The knowledge, attitudes, values, and customs that characterize a social group.
a cultural clash that occurs when a child's home culture and the culture of the school create conflicting expectations for a student's behavior.
Culturally Responsive Teaching
classroom management that combines teachers' awareness of possible personal biases with cultural knowledge.
the anxiety experienced by members of a group resulting from concern that their behavior might confirm a stereotype.
cultures with beliefs, values, and behaviors that reject the values of mainstream cultures.
The belief that students' culture of ethnicity should not be a consideration in teaching.
English language programs that place ELLs in regular classrooms without additional assistance to help them learn both English and academic content at the same time.
A type of immersion program that attempts to assist ELLS by teaching both English and academic subjects at a slower pace.
Transitional ELL programs
ELL programs that attempt to use the native language as an instructional aid until English becomes proficient.
ESL pullout programs
Programs for ELL student who receive most of their instruction in regular classrooms but are also pulled out for extra help.
An approach to teaching ELL students in academic classrooms that modifies instruction to assist students in learning content.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
A level of proficiency in English that allows students to interact conversationally with their peers. (Language of the kitchen)
Academic language proficiency
A level of proficiency in English that allows students to handle demanding learning tasks with abstract concepts.
the process of placing students of similar abilities into groups and attempting to match instruction to the needs of these groups.