Antiseptics, Disinfectants, and Sterilization

23 terms by sarahshed 

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Physical Agents of Sterilization

Steam Under Pressure, Dry Heat, Radiation

Chemical Agents of Sterilization

Ethylene Oxide, Gas Plasma (Sterrad), Peracetic Acid (Steris)

Gravity Displacement Autoclave

Most common heat sterilization
Steam on top displaces air to bottom, Temp increases as pressure increases
Kills all known microbes by coagulation and denaturation of proteins

Routine Instruments - 13 min @ 121
Large Linen Packs - 30 min @ 121
Emergency Flash - 3 min @ 131

How long should you Autoclave?

Dry Heat

Kills by oxidation
good for powders, oils, needles
Uses greater time and temp than autoclave

Radiation

Most common is intense gamma radiation
Industrial/Commercial use, pharmaceuticals, plastic disposables, needles
Very expensive

Ethylene Oxide

Flammable gas, contact burns, cannot be used with irradiation
NOT affected by organic matter, penetrates plastic
Kills by altering DNA through alkylation
Minimum 33% humidity and 50-55 degrees C
Endoscopes, cables, cameras, certain plastics

H2O2 Sterrad

Chemical alternative to EtO
Destroys cellular components of bacteria, spores, fungi, viruses, mycobacterium
Safe, very effective
NOT for endoscopes, liquids, or plant
1 year shelf life

Alcohol

Antiseptic
Rapidly bactericidal, but NO residual
Not for spores, fungi, virus
Presurgical skin prep, can reduce residual of chlorhexidine,

Iodine/Iodophores

Antiseptic
Free iodine is active component, Free iodine increases with decreased concentration
Kills by cell metabolic interference of protein synthesis
Bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal, NOT for spores
Minimal residual
NOT for joint or peritoneal lavage

Chlorhexidine

Antiseptic
Kills by cell membrane disruption and protein precipitation
Bactericial including Pseudomonas, variable against fungi and virus, only sporicidal at 1%
Residual, NOT cytotoxic, but NOT for joint or peritoneal lavage

Alcohol vs Iodine vs Chlorhexidine

Immediate Effect
Alcohol>Chlorhex>Iodine
Activity reduced by organic matter
Alcohol>Iodine>Chlorhex
Residual Effect
Chlorhex>Iodine>Alcohol
NONE are effective against spores

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

Disinfectant
Dissolve lipids in cell wall/membrane
Good for gram pos, some gram neg
Fungicidal, virucidal*, NOT spore
Inactivated by organic matter and soap*
NON-toxic

Chlorines

Disinfectant
BacT, virus, fungus
Inactivated by organic material, high pH, low or high temp
Cytotoxic
Dakin's solution (dilute for use on tissues)

Aldehydes (Cidex)

Disinfectant (previously a sterilant)
Protein and nucleic acid alkylation
BacT, fungus, spore, virus
NOT affected by organic matter
Activity higher at lower pH, but less stable
Toxic

Sterilization

Complete destruction of all microorganisms; applies to NONliving objects

Disinfection

The destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on NONliving objects

Antisepsis

The destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms on LIVING objects

Cleansing

The removal of visible debris or contamination from surfaces

Bacteristatic

An agent that inhibits or arrests the growth of bacteria

Bactericidal

An agent that kills bacteria

Single wrap muslin - 2-7 days
Double wrap muslin - 3-7 weeks
Single crepe paper - 3-8 weeks
Double crepe paper - 8 weeks - 6 months
Pouches - 1 year

Autoclave Storage Times

Antiseptic

An agent lethal to vegetative organisms but suitable for use in LIVING tissue
The agent may be ________ at low concentrations and disinfectant at high concentrations

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