What is learning? What changes?
It is a change in behavior or knowledge due to the experience.
What is Classical Conditioning?
Also known as Pavlovian Conditioning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.
Pavlov's Demonstration on Conditioning
When a dog is presented meat powder it salivates. The unconditioned stimulus is the meat powder because it doesn't need to be learned. The unconditioned response is salivation for the meat powder. When after conditioning the dog salivates to the sound of a bell. The conditioned response is salivation and the conditioned stimulus is the bell!
A unlearned response in which response happens naturally. (Eg. Salivation)
An unlearned stimulus that evokes a natural response
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs due to conditioning
Originally neutral response that goes through conditioning and becomes capable of evoking a conditioned response
what is Acquisition?
the initial acquiring of information
What happens during extinction?
a response that was conditioned eventually loses its effect
the random recovery of a previously conditioned response that was extinguished.
responding to a stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus
being able to tell the difference between stimulus and original stimulus.
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
Who coined the term Reinforcement?
What is the general overview of reinforcement?
when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response.
What is happening to the animals in the Skinner box?
they are being controlled and shaped
What is shaping?
it is when you shape an organisms behavior based on reinforcement presented.
What is the general belief of Behaviorists?
They believe that studies can only be done on observable behavior.
What is Primary and Secondary reinforcement?
Primary reinforcement is based around reinforcing with biological needs (food, water, shelter, sex, affection)
Secondary reinforcement is when events that require reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcement
What are the 6 Schedules of reinforcement?
What is continuous reinforcement?
occurs when a specific response is reinforced every time.
What is intermediate reinforcement?
specific response is reinforced only some of the time
reinforcement is given after a fixed number of trials
reinforcement is given after a varied ratio of trials
Fixed interval reinforcement
reinforcement is given after a specific time has passed
Varied interval reinforcement
reinforcement is given after varied time has passed
What were the Ratio schedules of reinforcements findings?
tended to produce a more rapid response time
What were the interval schedules of reinforcements findings?
tended to generate steadier response rates and greater resistance to extinction.
What is positive reinforcement?
a response is strengthened when presented with a rewarding stimulus
What is negative reinforcement?
a response is strengthened when the removal of a unpleasant stimulus
learning a response that decreases or ends unpleasant stimulus
what is learned avoidance?
an organism acquires a response that prevents an unpleasant stimulus from occurring
What is punishment?
event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response
What did Brelands study suggest about organisms and their biological heritage?
Suggested Instinctive Drift that an organisms natural responses interferes with conditioned stimulus (Raccoons and coins)
What did Garcia's study on conditioned taste aversion suggest?
Suggested that when a neutral stimulus is associated with nausea/throwing up people tend to have that feeling when presented with with stimulus
What is latent learning?
learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided
Is when an organism responding is influenced by an audience
What are the keys to Observational Learning?
What does Bandura, Ross, and Russ's study suggest about Media Violence?
that learned aggressive behavior in children can be influenced by by aggressive models
modifying an organisms behavior through the application of the principals of conditioning
What is a behavioral contract?
a written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the rules of behavior modification system