Aborescent tree ferns are found in...
3 different fern strategies/environments
climbing/ vining, epiphytic, floating aquatic plants
example of water ferns
shoot with abundant storage tissue
grows at or within substratum surface, parallel to it
fern shoots have apical meristem with
.single apical cell at summit
kinds of fern leaf
pinna are themselves subdivided (into pinnules)
pinnules are themselves subdivided
subdivided into pinnae along rachis
Which plant organ is most prominent and elaborate in conventional ferns as compared to the other seedless vascular plants we considered previously (Selaginella, Psilotum, Equisetum)?
• Sporophyte: Stems, leaves and roots with xylem and phloem. Grows to independence from gametophyte
o Reduction of gametophyte
leafs remain meristematic for a long time how are they protected ?
rolled up into a protective crozier that unrolls as leaf develops
Sporangium has ______ of unevenly thick walled cells
flexes in response to changes in humidity, flings spores out
group of sporangia
shape/location of sori
round or linear/ near leaf margin, leaf vein, or laminal
tissue covering the sorus of a fern
role of sporopollenin
protects spore from desiccation and destruction
Life cycle of fern
• Sporangia releases spores spore develops into small gametophyte gametophyte produces sperm in antheridia and eggs in archegonia zygote develops into large sporophyte cluster of sporangia form sori
origin of seeds plants ? what era ?
end of paleozoic era
why did global climate change
re-positioning of continents (pangea) changes in ocean circulation
one kind of sporangium; meiosis produces 1 kind of spore that will develop into gametophyte bearing both M/F gametes
Two kinds of sporangia (♀ and ♂);
meiosis in each produces 2 different kinds of
spores (♀ and ♂) that will develop into separate
♀ and ♂ gametophytes.
seed plants; hetersporous or homospory
Where does female spore develop ?
develops into gametophyte within the sporangium
♀ Sporangium +
protective integuments =
nutritive surrounding spore/gametophyte
whats a seed
fertilized ovule (with embryo)
Female pine cone seeds
winged seeds borne in pairs on ovuliferous scales
1 pollen lands on ovule
2 pollen tube delivers male gamete to egg
3 fertilization occurs
4 zygote develops into sporophyte embryo (within ovule)
5 Dormancy. Mature ovule (SEED)
then dispersed; embryo protected.
Development of microspore
Male sporangium: meiosis haploid microspores = pollen grain
• Pollination is delivering the prospective gamete to female gamete. Wind/animals different ways of dispersal
o Fertilization occurs after pollen land, pollen tube grows and delivers sperm to egg
seedless vs seed plants and fertilization
seedless require water for syngamy; seed no water needed
small skinny fall apart easily
Gymnosperm diversity 4 kinds
genus name for :
ginkgo biloba; leaves shape
Ginkgo biloba; where is it found why ?
lose leaves term-
commonly planted ornamental
in cities; resists air pollution &
Ginkgo biloba; (separate ♂& ♀ plants) term
Ginkgo biloba ovules
borne in pairs at tips
Two extracts found in Ginkgo biloba
Flavonoids and tarpenoids
Cycads most diverse during...
Jurassic period of Mesozoic era
Cycads; Dioecious or monoecious
location of mega/microsporophylls
microsporangia on surface
ovules on surface
or insects such as beetles.
Cones generate heat, volatilizing chemicals that
attract (to female) or repel (from male) insect visitors.
-Cover vast areas of boreal forest
-Lumber and paper industries
needle-like to scale-like, simple;
typically tough & "evergreen."
Pine shoots contain...
inedible to most animals.
Source of varnish,
turpentine, amber and gin
microsporangia or ovules
on flattened, spirally arranged scales.
Oldes non-clonal living thing; type of pine...
Tallest known trees
Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)
northern California to Oregon
Largest tree in terms of overall volume
California Sierra Nevada endemic
Slash pine genus name
Pines; two kinda of shoots
-long shoots" indeterminate, produce papery scale leaves
-short shoots" borne in their axils; determinate fascicle (bundle) of photosynthetic, needle-leaves.
Swamp Cypress characteristics
butresses near base for extra stability
knees-up growths from root system
leaves spreading; dorsiventral shoots
leaves appressed; radially symetrical
shrub-tree used in landscaping,
single ovules surrounded by scale
that swells after fertilization
to form fleshy red aril.
highly poisonous taxane terpenoids
in stems and seeds.
Paclitaxel (taxol) inhibits mitosis,
now used as anticancer drug.
-Have vessels in xylem, like angiosperms
origin within conifer group
leaves resemble those of angiosperms
-N.America & Asia
-opposite, highly reduces scale-like leaves(stems photosynthesis)
-source of amphetamine-like stimulant alkaloids ephedrine, pseudephedrine
Gnetophyta that produces only two leaves its entire life
Welwitschia mirabilis; location; cones
-Cone-bearing reproductive shoots arise from
this same meristem.
Lose leaves in autum
Cycad distribution globally
Tropics and subtropics
Three genera of Gnetophyte gymnosperms
elongation of stems and production of leaves;
elongation of roots
thickening of shoot and root axes; production
of new vascular and
produces secondary phloem
to the outside, and great amounts
of secondary xylem to the inside
adds new protective dermal tissue (cork)
Shoot in primary growth:
Apical meristem generates new Leaves
no longer functions in transport; filled with phenolic secondary compounds to give more strength and resistance to decay
Horizontally oriented cell files involved in transport radially
a highly hydrophobic wax
-Must first widen in primary growth before growing up tall.
monocot; no lateral meristems
monocot tree no secondary growth
overlapping leaf bases
What is wood
Growth season- larger cells cell size gets smaller as season ends
Give two main reasons why secondary growth is vital to the development of trees
Provide strength and increase vascular tissue as organism grows
great diversification in Cenozoic era
What is a flower ?
determinate shoot highly specialized for reproduction
The four types of modified leaves
enclose and protect rest of flower in bud (compromise calyx)
colorful display to attract pollinator (comprise corolla)
bear male sporangia known as anthers (comprise androecium)
Bear & enclose ovules, form pistils individually or by fusion (comprise gynoecium)
Example of many pistils:
Magnolia; separate carpels spirally arranged
Drymis; separate carpels, in whorl
Whorl of carpels fused together at edges
to form single pistil
fused edge to edge
fused by having grown together
Sepals, petals and stamens insert below base of pistil
basal parts of sepals, petals and stamens adnate to base of pistil
generative cell + tube cell (tough coat)
specialized flowering shoot
or complex of shoots.
better attract pollinators
Single flower inflorescence
Any specialized leaves associated with the inflorescence are known as
Bracts may be reduced to scale leaves or highly modified
to contribute to the pollinator
flowering plants (POACEAE)
but are mainly wind-pollinated
nutritive tissue; food for development/germination of embryo
develops into embryo
becomes sporophyte plant
collective term for all carpels in a flower. A carpel is the ovule and seed producing reproductive organ in flowering plants
• Pollen delivers 2 sperms:
o Sperm 1: fuses with egg to form zygote (2n)embryo sporophyte plant
o Sperm 2: fuses with two other maternal nuclei to form triploid cell (3n) endosperm nutritive tissue; food for development/germination of embry
Fruit and seed coat= bran
ovule becomes ...
Splits open to release seeds when mature
silk cotton tree, mahogany, ackee
Dehiscent fruit; Dispersal
unit of dispersal seed; wind/animal
winged seeds, silky threads, edible aril
Unit of dispersal: seed
Agent of dispersal: hydrostatic pressure
Rosary pea; dispersal
: bright seeds eaten by birds; hard coat prevent digestion
Fuzzy calix becomes parachute (wind)
float (water buoyancy)
hitchhikers; hooks, spines, or velcro-like (animals)
birds eat fruit and disperse
rodents sensitive to capsaicin
Three layers formed from fruit development
fruit with all or nearly all of ovary wall developing into fleshy tissue
type of fruit formed when inner layer of ovary wall (endocarp) becomes hard and bony
ovary wall surrounding single ovule, forms tough dry tissue
dry, oily fruit with single seed; entire ovary wall becomes hard and bony
develops from separate pistils of same flower
fleshy expanded tissue
Raspberries and blackberries
separate spirally arranged pistils, each with single ovule.
spirally arranged carpels each forms a separate pistil with single ovule
formed from fused, fleshy tissue of many flowers in an intercalary inflorescence
meristematic for long time; protective crozier unrolls
Fern rhizome. How is tissue arranged ?
identify Xylem and Phloem
(phloem surrounds Xylem)
sori shape and position differs;
round, linear, continuous...
laminal, marginal, near vein
Indusium; it may be a lateral pocket, a rolled-back extension of the leaf margin, or an umbrella-shaped or kidney-shaped scale
. Notice that each has a stalk; a row of thick-walled cells, called an annulus, runs along the midline of the sporangium itself. The walls of these cells are hygroscopic; they curl with changes in humidity and fling out the spores when the sporangium is mature
gametophyte; colorless rhizoids;
parts of gametophyte;
Identify the root, leaf blades and leaf petioloes of the sprorophyte.
archegonia vs antheridia
Identify parts, how many seeds per scale?
. The outer layers include integuments of the sporangium wall and to the inside a nucellus tissue, both part of the parent sporophyte. The nucellus provides stored nutrients for the gametophyte which develops from the single megaspore (n) (produced by meiosis of a diploid mother cell). Identify these tissues
from outside in; ovule integument- gametophyte-sporophyte embryo
Pinus staminate cone, what are differences
find sporophylls and sporangia
Conifer pollen; multicellular
Get a slide and find pollen tubes growing from the pollen. A nucleus migrates down into the tube; it later divides to form two sperm which are delivered to an archegonium. Find this nucleus in one of the germinating grains
Describe; what stage ?
Pinus elliottii (slash pine)
dorsiventral organs produced as direct outgrowths of the apical meristem
long shoots" indeterminate, produce papery scale leaves
"short shoots" borne in their axils; determinate fascicle
(bundle) of photosynthetic, needle-leaves
The genus Pinus shows what is known as shoot dimorphism
pine needle fascicles
Left:bald cypress; leaves spreading (dorsiventral shoots)
position of leaves/describe shoots
pond cypress; leaves appressed; radially symetrical shoots
position of leaves/ describe shoots
Butresses; provide extra stability in soft marshy substratum
"knees," which likewise represent localized zones of unequal secondary growth, in this case upward from the main roots. They usually rise just above the water level, which strongly suggests a role in obtaining oxygen for the root
describe bases and growth around
Female cones taxodium.
strobilus genus ? compare
Male strobili taxodium
Microsporangia how does it differ
Taxodium- monicious dioecious ?
monoecious or dioecious?
Microsporangia on surface-cycad-male cone
location of microsporangia ?
Cycad-female cone-megosporophylls with ovules on surface-compare to pinus
from outside in, integument female gametophyte
Gametophyte tissue and embryo, cotyledons ?
Cycads-fix nitrogen absorbed by plants (nostoc, cyanobacteria)
Roots produce neurotoxin BMAA
find vascular cambium
As growth season nears its end,
cells of smaller diameter produced.
New growth season will begin with
larger diameter cells. The contrast
is visible as growth rings.
Describe any differences between early and late wood in the sections. How many seasons of growth has each stem section gone through?
What tissues would be present in the first-formed layer of "bark"?
older sections grow
transverse; the Pine secondary xylem maceration slide. (Particular cells types are inconsistently stained red or blue here) Identify the tracheids, tubular cells with tapered ends and variously shaped pits or openings in their secondary walls. Fibers are somewhat slenderer, but with much thicker walls that leave only a very narrow lumen inside
show tracheids and fibers but also vessels, conducting cells that are much wider than the tracheid and are perforated at their ends
secondary xylem, the position of the vascular cambium, and where the secondary phloem would be found. About how many seasons of growth are apparent in the secondary xylem of each tree trunk? Identify the sapwood and the heartwood. What is the difference between the two? What is the difference in their function?
If the trunk were freshly cut, which parts would consist of living cells? Which parts would contain mainly dead cells? All dead cells?
Take a look at the bark, and describe the differences you see among the species on display. What tissues are present in bark at this mature stage of growth? Where do the cork cambia arise? Is there a species on display where you can actually see how many cork cambia contributed to the bark present?
The tangential section is cut lengthwise but not along a radius, instead passing through a peripheral part of the stem
radial section (cut lengthwise, along a radius
radially symmetric. That means that the petals are identical in design, and project from a central point or focus.
A bilaterally symmetric flower has two sides (left and right) which are mirror images of one another
1. Sepals - enclose and protect rest
of flower in bud (comprise calyx).
2. Petals - colorful display to attract
pollinators (comprise corolla).
3. Stamens - bear male sporangia
known as anthers (comprise
4. Carpels - bear & enclose ovules,
form pistil(s) individually or by
fusion (comprise gynoecium).
: (1) calyx; (2) corolla (calyx + corolla = perianth); (3) androecium; (4) gynoecium.
Flower with single central pistil:
Whorl of carpels fused together at edges
to form single pistil
Flower with many pistils:
Each carpel folds edges together
to form a separate pistil
Know difference-sunflower inferior
If the chamber is below the apparent point of insertion of the remaining floral parts (stamens, petals, sepals), we say that the ovary is inferior. If above, superior
a single megaspore results after the other three meiotic products break down.
Lilium ovary: megasporocyte.
endosperm is a nutrient tissue within the seed (it is most of what you eat in corn)
Lilium anthers x.s., pollen tetrads
Haploid microspores are produced inside the pollen sacs by meiosis, and they usually are in tetrads (groups of four). Each microspore divides by mitosis to form a male gametophyte or pollen grain
Ceiba= silk cotton tree
Squirting cucumber- explosive dehiscence - fruit
Hydrostatic pressure agent
-Ackee- dehiscent fruit-
-Fleshy edible aril develops from
funiculus (stalk) of ovule.
Rosary pea - legume fruit - dehiscent
Dandelion- indehiscent fruit- composite family
Coconut- indehiscent fruit
Sea bean- indehiscent fruit
hitchhiker" fruits with hooks, spines or velcro-like fuzz.
Attach to animal fur, feathers, limbs
Common SW Florida epiphytes
on Sabal palmetto leaf bases.
Common SW Florida epiphytes
on Sabal palmetto leaf bases.
Shoot apical meristem
of fern Nephrolepis,
showing apical cell.
antheridia fern gametophyte
neck and canal is found in
what makes up the bark ?
Cork and secondary phloem
druplets together form