Ch.21 French Revolution (1789-1799)

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Calonne

financial advisor in 1788(bad crop year), asked nobles to compromise and pay taxes at Assembly of Notables, but failed to gain support, king forced to call estates-general

Parlement

French body that had the right to approve the legality of an act but could not legislate

3 stages of Revolution

3 stages of spreading the revolution

1: military conquest and occupation by French troops, with support of local persons willing to collaborate with France
2: helping in drafting of a constitution, specifying powers of new government, regularized relationship with France
3: sweeping internal reform and reorganization, modeled on Bonaparte's model of France.

The Social Contract

written by Rousseau stating that the government officials cannot rule without the consent of the people

Abbe Sieyes

Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.

"Liberty, equality, fraternity"

slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution

Cahier de doleances

List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789.

Louis XVI (ex. Jan. 21, 1793)

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.

National Assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

This was the new constitution that the National Assembly wrote that gave all citizens free expression of thoughts and opinions and guaranteed equality before the law

Girondists

These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway

Valmy

(1792) Very decisive battle in the French Revolution where the French stopped the Prussians from continuing into France.

sans-culottes

in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages

Marat

French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793), wrote radical newspaper

Varennes

In their flight from Paris, the royal family, dressed as servants, is captured in this city

The "Mountain"

This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome.

Great Fear

The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.

Declaration of Pillnitz

afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened.

Georges Danton

French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)

Cult of the Supreme Being

A religion based on deism devised by Maximilian Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution.

"Reign of Terror"

The period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)

Thermidorian Reaction

The violent backlash in France against the rule of Robspierre that began with his arrest and execution in July 1794, or 9 Thermidor in the French revolutionary calendar. Most of the instruments of Terror were dismantled, Jacobins were purged from public office, and Jacobin supporters were harassed or even murdered.

Reflections on the Revolution in France

Written by British writer Edmund Burke attacking the French Revolution. He said that the abstract rationalism of the Enlightenment threatened the historic evolution of nations by undermining their monarchy, established church, and the natural ruling elite.

Mary Wollstonecraft

British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women's equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 "Vindication of the Rights of Women."

Jaques Necker

financially expert, wanted to reformn gorvernment, abolish tarrifs and reduce court spending. King liked him but when he wanted to tax the First and Second Estates they booted him.

Jacobins

Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.

Jean Jaques Rousseau

believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property. wote Social Contract

Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)

Marie Antoinette

queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

Gracchus Babeuf

a French politician and journalist during revolution who wanted to abolish private property and eliminate private enterprise. While the leftist radicals against the Directory were generally not united, this man led the largest charge behind his Conspiracy of Equals. The society was suppressed, and this man was guillotined.

Third Estate

98% of the population made up of Bourgeoisie, San Cullotes, and the Peasent Farmers

"Tennis Court Oath"

Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).

The Bastille

July 14, 1789 French peasants stormed the prison the Bastille, in an attempt to free prisoners, they believed, had been wrongly accused.

Vendee

Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).

Lafayette

Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.

Louis St.Just

Robespierre's young protege

Levee en Masse

A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.

Olympe de Gouges

A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.

Edmund Burke

A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.

Jaques Louis David

A leading artist of the age, he captured events such as the Tennis Court Oath and Napoleon's Coronation all in the grandeur of Rome

Brunswick Manifesto

Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defence force.

Maximilien Robespierre

"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.

Directory (1795-1799)

Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.

Committee of Public Safety

The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.

Rights of Man

Written by Thomas Paine. It has been seen as a defense of the French Revolution, but it's also an influential work that embodied ideas of liberty and human equality.

"whiff of grapeshot"

when mobs of parisians joined national guardsmen bent on toppling the republic the goverment called on Napoleon to dispell the crowds and he did so with a....in 1795

Citizen Capet

Name under which Louis XVI was tried by the revolution. Louis convicted in front of national convention of treason, voted guilty. Stripped of all titles and honorifics by the egalitarian, republican government, Citizen Louis Capet was guillotined in front of a cheering crowd

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