1.A holder of a valid claim based in justice has a right, but it not necessarily due anything. (T/F)
2.Another name for distributive justice is retribution. (T/F)
3.A clear example of distributive justice appears in the history of research involving human subjects. (T/F)
4.The formal principle of justice:
Equals should be treated equally, unequals unequally
5.A material principle of justice identifies relevant _________________ for distribution.
6.In Philosophy 221, the two maternal principles most used for grading:
7.If one were to accept only a principle of free-market distribution, then one would oppose a principle of need as a basis for public policy. (T/F)
8.In the Auto Workers v. Johnson Controls, Inc., the court found that the workplace policy involved was based on the irrelevant (unjust) property of ______________.
9.In order to specify and balance principles a general _________ of justice can provide assistance.
10.Utilitarians argue the standard of justice demands we seek to maximize social welfare. (T/F)
11.The US has almost exclusively accepted the free-market ideal that distributions of health care are best left to the marketplace. (T/F)
12.For the libertarian, health care is not a right and the ideal health care system is privatized. (T/F)
13.Libertarians generally support a health care system in which health care insurance is privately and voluntarily purchased. (T/F)
14. ____________________ theories of justice focus on principles that evolve through traditions and practices.
15.Zeke Emanuel proposes a health care system with thousands of what he calls "_______________________," each involving citizen-members.
Health care communities
16.The right to health care is on a weak foundation when based on overall utility. (T/F)
17.For egalitarians, each member of society would have equal access to an adequate level of health care. (T/F)
18. _____________theories of justice hold that health care is not a right, and the ideal health care system is privatized.
19.Rawls uses fair opportunity as a rule of __________.
20.John Rawls' theory of justice holds that each person is entitled to the maximum amount of ______________ compatible with a similar measure of liberty for others.
21.Rawls recognizes that the principle of fair opportunity can only be imperfectly carried out as long as the institution of the ____________ exists.
22.The theory of _________________ holds that there is a social obligation to reduce or eliminate barriers that prevent fair equality of opportunity.
23.The fair opportunity rule is specified under the principle of _________________.
24.The fair opportunity rule says that no person should receive social benefits on the basis of _________________. It also hold that no person should be denied social benefits on the basis of ___________________ .
Undeserved advantageous properties
Undeserved disadvantageous properties
25.The genetic lottery refers to distribution of advantages and disadvantages of ticket numbers for a hypothetical health care insurance drawing. (T/F)
False (to the genetics one was born with)
26.Many studies in the US indicate blacks and women have less access to various forms of health care in comparison to white men. (T/F)
27.Data indicate that somewhere between 10% and 20% of research subjects who are healthy volunteers self-report their primary motivation for volunteering is financial need. (T/F)
False (higher percentage)
28.The notion of vulnerability refers to a person's susceptibility to inducement or coercion or to harm, loss, or ______________.
29.The right to volunteer as a research subject has been granted to prisoners in most nations, although denied in the US on the grounds of the potential for manipulation or coercion in penal institutions. (T/F)
30.A ______________________ situation is one where a person feels controlled by the situation, such as severe illness or lack of food and shelter.
31.The presence of an irresistibly attractive offer is a sufficient condition for making an inducement undue. (T/F)
32.Undue inducements are sometimes referred to as undue profits. (T/F)
33.Inducements are not undue unless they are both excessive in _______ and excessive in ________.
34.BC6 warn against stopping pharmaceutical company use of research studies in poor communities, as payments for studies are a vital source of needed funds for the economically disadvantaged and a way to provide jobs in these communities. (T/F)
35.Two main arguments support a moral right to government funded health care: an argument based on _____________________ and an argument from ______________________.
Collective social protection
36.On each of the nonlibertarian theories of justice, the argument from other comparable government services successfully generates a public obligation to provide some level of health care services. (T/F)
37.The decent minimum approach entails acceptance of a __________________ system.
38.The concept of decent minimum represents one place of agreement among different theories of justice. (T/F)
39.BC6 conclude it would be fair in many cases to require individuals to pay higher premiums or taxes if they accept well-documented risks that may result in costly medical attention. (T/F)
40.Public preferences should play a role in setting the decent minimum. (T/F)
41.Ethical and political theories that explicitly address questions of global justice are referred to as ______________________ theories.
42.Madison Powers and Ruth Faden posit that social justice is concerned with human well-being, not only health, and list six core dimensions of well-being. Name them:
43.Inequalities are not merely a matter of bad luck of personal failings. They are often distributed by social institutions the can be structured explicitly to reduce the inequalities. (T/F)
44.Approximately 20 million people in the developing world die each year from malnutrition and diseases that can be inexpensively prevented or treated by cheap and available means. (T/F)
45.The goal of the CUA is utilitarian, health benefits are quantified, and QALYs are used. (T/F)
46.Good evidence exists to show that public health expenditures targeted at poorer communities for ________________________ (such as prenatal care) save many times that amount in future care.
47.Both need and prospect of success are value-laden concepts. (T/F)
48.BC6 present several basic "target goals" for a new health care policy:
Universal insurance coverage
Acceptable incentives for physicians and patients
A fair system of rationing that does not violate the decent minimum
Putting a new system into effect incrementally
49.Some form of _____________________________.
Universal Insurance coverage
50.Acceptable incentives for ___________________ and for __________________.
51.A fair system of rationing that does not violate the ____________________.
52.Put new system into effect ____________________.
53. ___________ is a French term meaning sorting, picking, or choosing.
54.The use of a lottery system for distributing scarce resources is never justified. (T/F)