Mt. Vernon Conference
to review what could be done about the country's inability to overcome critical problems in 1785, Washington hosted it at his home.
a continuation of the Mt. Vernon Conference but hardly any states appeared. only resolved to have another conference at Philadelphia
"for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation", and only Rhode Island didn't send any delegates.
Framers of Constitution
James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, and John Dickinson
Father of the Constitution
Check and Balances
one branch of government having sufficient power to check the others
favored the large states over the issue of large states having proportionally more representatives in Congress than smaller states
New Jersey Plan
favored the small states
provided for a 2 house Congress. Each state would be given equal representation in the Senate; but in the larger body, the House of Representatives, each state would be represented according to the size of its population
counted each slave as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of determining a state's level of taxation and representation
allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, including placing tariffs on foreign imports, but it prohibited placing taxes on any exports
instituted so as to prevent mob democracy. each state is assigned a number of electors equal to the total of that state's representatives and senators
those who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government
tended to go against Federalists and were usually small farmers and settlers in the western frontier
The Federalist Papers
presented cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution. key element in the Federalist campaign for the Constitution. written by Jay, Hamilton, and Madison
Bill of Rights
controversial to have people's rights listed in the Constitution. Anti-Fed believed that a B.o.R would stop tyranny from oppressing the people. Federalists believed that since members of Congress would be elected by the people, they didn't need to be protected against themselves
Judiciary Act (1789)
of 1789, established a Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associate justices. was empowered to rule on the constitutionality of decisions made by state courts.
Hamilton wanted to protect the infant industries of America and collect adequate revenues while imposing foreign tariffs
Hamilton thought this would help for a place for deposited government funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a stable U.S currency.
Controversial because though Americans generally supported the French people's aspiration to establish a republic, many were horrified of reports of mass hysteria and mass executions.
Proclamation of Neutrality
Washington believed that America wasn't capable of engaging in a European war.
originally a mission to talk Britain out of its offensive practice of American ship impressment, Jay only managed to obtain a treaty that Britain agreed to evacuate the western frontier posts. maintained neutrality. scared Spain that America might be getting closer to G.B.
in 1794, the Thomas Pinckney managed to negotiate a treaty in which Spain agreed to open the lower Mississippi River and New Orleans to American trade
Battle of Fallen Timbers
a battle in which Ohio Native Americans were evicted from their lands in 1794.
1794, in western Pennsylvania, the refusal of a farmer group to pay the federal excise tax on whisky seemed to pose a major challegne to the viability of the U.S government under the Constitution. Washington showed a strong force that stopped the rebellion but scared the public now that they see the federal government as using unwarranted force against the common people
Public Land Act
1796, established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices
the former Anti-Fed
Washington's Farewell Address
1796 warned Americans
1. not to get involved in European affairs
2. against the U.S for having "permanent alliances" in foreign affairs
3. not to form political parties
4. to avoid sectionalism
Adams sent a delegation to Paris to negotiate a treaty about the French seizing of American ships. XYZ wanted a bribe before even starting negotiations
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798, Federalists authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in time of war. and made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the President or Congress and imposed heavy penalties for editors who violated the law.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
declared that states had entered into a 'compact' in forming the national government, and therefore if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify the federal law. D.R response to Fed. A+S act
Revolution of 1800
change from Federalist control to D.R party control without any violence; unprecedented.