IMPERIALISM - Defined
Domination by one country of the Political and Economic life of another country. (Western powers had strong armed forces and new weapons, medicine, etc)
IIMPERIALISM -What is it ?
Empire, or its own Ruler
Having to do with Authority of one country over other countries or colonies
Having the Rank of an Emperor
Larger size or better Quality
Ruling over everyone else
Both Catholic and Protestant. Felt that Africans would become more civilized if converted to Christianity. Built schools and hospitals next to Churches. Felt Paternalistic towards Africans...."they needed guidance"
UPPER CLASS .-- A Western Educated African Elite during the Age of Imperialism. (some middle class Africans admired western ways and rejected their own culture.)
RESISTANCE of AFRICANS to Imperialism
Algerians battle French (lose)
East and West Africa battles Britain (lose)
Leopold from Belgium takes over the Congo (no rulers allowed from Africa)
Germany carved out their niche-
BRITISH MONARCHS in the time of African Imperialism
Lord LUGARD- British Empire builder justified Imperialism in Africa. They took over South Africa after fighting the Boers and laid foundation for complete SEGREGATION of whites and blacks there until 1993. Monarchs were armed with new economics and political power and wanted to dominate the world.
CAUSES OF IMPERIALISM
Competition for Trade
Superior Military Force
European power and politics
Racist belief in European Superiority ******
(these the most important and ON the TEST)
REACTIONS TO IMPERIALISM in AFRICA
Try to drive the foreigners Away
Large masses of people to accept European Rule
Modernist response: Western educated natives Attracted to the ideas of Independence while also Repelled by Western racism.
ECONOMICS OF IMPERIALISM
EUROPEAN countries invested money overseas to build railroads, ports, mines, plantations, factories and untilites
British physician and missionary. Spent many years setting up Christian ministries in Central Africa. His reports made many British people aware of business opportunities and missionary opportunities. Bitterly OPPOSED to slave trade.
When Local Rulers stayed in place but European advisors controlled Trade and sent Missionaries.(cost less than a colony to rule)
SPHERE OF INFLUENCE
An Area in which an Outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
CONGO FREE STATE
Area claimed by King Leopold II of BELGIUM. (recognized at the Berlin Conference) He got rid of the many abuses, BUT regarded the Congo as his possesion.
Reforming Ruler who Modernized Ethiopia.
Areas that were settled by FREE Blacks from the United States! Became an INDEPENDENT Republic in 1847.
FEMALE Military Leader of the Shona (a tribe of group of people) in Zimbabwe. She has a lasting legacy but was later excuted.
Helped by Menelik II, who was reforming leader. Built schools, imported weapons and trained his army. Thus when ITALY invaded Ethiopia, they WON!! Preserved their independence!
EMPIRES (Ways in which Europe expanded)
European states established vast political empires, mainly in AFRICA and ASIA
White people came to rule over millions of black and brown people in AFRICA and ASIA
(One quarter - 1/4 of the World's population)
DIRECT AND INDIRECT RULE:
The FRENCH and the BRITISH did most of this . (French-DIRECT and British-INDIRECT)
MUHAMMAD ALI PASHA (1769-1864)
Led Egyptian (North Africa-ALGERIANS) resistance to French invasion. Tried to reform to make it a stronger country. Introduced irrigation techniques and dykes. Encouraged people to grow cash crops (sugar, cotton, tobacco) set up schools, mills, and military.
POPULATION SHIFTS in Europe during Imperialism
Millions of Europeans went abroad
Why? Poverty and overcrowding in rural populations
BOER WAR (1899-1902)
War between the BRITISH and the BOERS (descendants of the Dutch who founded Cape Town in Africa)
Lasted 3 Years (1899-1902)
British place many Boers in concentration camps, where they died
After war, British promised them self-government.
1910-British united south African colonies into SOUTH AFRICA
Boers were white and were majority of South Africa, so they won control of the Government (1910)
SHAKA (South Africa)
United the ZULU Nation. His conquests set off mass migration, WARS and chaos. By 1830---the ZULUS were battling the BOERS.
A form of Imperial Rule
FRANCE- Sent officials and soldiers to administer to their colonies and turn them into FRENCH provinces
France could still use military force over a colony if necessary
A form of Imperial Rule
BRITAIN- To govern their colonies they used sultans, chiefs or other Local Rulers. They encourage the children of the local rulers to get an education in Britain.(to groom new western leaders...)
Britain could still use military force over a colony if necessary
INFLUENCE OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (IR) ON IMPERIALISM
The IR gave Europe ALOT of power and Strong centrally governed Nations/States.
The IR Greatly enriched the economies of Europe
Europeans were encourage by their military strength and new economy
The IR Created Needs and Desires that spurred the overseas (abroad) expansion.
Steam-powered ships and naval vessels could take on coal and supplies--Europeans needed bases in other places
Manufacturers for the IR wanted access to natural resources (petroleum, palm oil, steel, etc) in other countries
IR people hoped for new markets where they could sell their factory goods.
Applying Darwin's ideas about Natural Selection and Survival of the Fittest. Europeans argued they were superior and Imperial conquest and destroying weaker races were Nature's way to improve the social species!!
International Conference held in Berlin in 1884.
About Africa, BUT no Africans invited
Why? All Europe rushing to colonize Africa. So, In order to AVOID bloodshed, this conference was called
They AGREED: NO European power could claim any part of Africa UNLESS they set up a Government office there.
(Hence---Direct and Indirect rule)