crop grown primarily for market. a few years after the foundating of Jamestown, tobacco became the South's first successful cash crop. Tobacco became the main cash crop grown in Virginia and Maryland and North carolina. Rice and indigo became the main cash crops in South Carolina. These cash crops needed the right kind of climate and techniques to be cultivated.
large commercial estates where many laborers lived on the land and cultivated the crops for the landowner. the requirements for a cash crop led to the rise of plantations.
an individual who contracts to work for a colonist for a specific number of years in exchange for transportation to the colonies, food, clothing, and shelter. Many poor tenant farmers had been forced off the land during the enclosure movement, creating high unemployment and a large number of people willing to sell their labor for a chance to come to America and aquire their own land.
system in which settlers were granted land in exchange for settling in Virginia. , established by Virginia Company, each settler received a single headright (50 acres) of land , encouraged family groups to migrate together because it meant larger landholdings for the family, any settler who paid passage for another immigrant would get an additional headright for each new arrival - the rich began importing laborers
farming only enough food to feed one's family. subsistence crops included corn, beans, potatoes, barely, and rye. Hogs and other livestock were allowed to run wild until needed for meat.
Sir William Berkeley
By the 1660s, wealthy planters led by the governer, Sir William Berkely, dominated Virginia's society. He controlled the legislature through his appointments to the colony's governing council and gifts of land to members of the House of Burgesses.
Virginia resident who attacked Indian tribes and Jamestown in 1676 hoping to secure land; he died during Bacon's Rebellion of dysentery, Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony
the difficult journey slaves endured in crossing the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas.
a set of laws that formally regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people. First in 1705 by Virginia.
men chosen to manage a town's affair. Elected annually. The selectmen appointed any other officials the twon needed, such as clerks, constables, and justices of the peace.
Bills of Exchange
credit slips given by English merchants to planters in exchange for sugar and other goods. To pay for the food and lumber from New England, Caribbean sugar planters would either trade raw sugar to the New England merchants or give them bills of exchange. These bills worked as a kind of money.
a three-way trade route that exchanged goods between the American colonies and two other trading partners.
the theory that a state's power depends on its wealth. A country could become wealthy by selling more goods to other countries than it bought from them, causing more gold and silver to flow into the country then what was flowing out to pay for products from other countries.
laws on ships, British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British
.in 1663, Parliament passed another navigation act called the Staple Act. This act required everything the colonies imported to come through England. All merchants bringing European goods to the colonies had to stop in England, pay taxes, and then ship the goods out again on English ships.
Domination of New England
in 1686 the English government merged Massachusetts, PLymouth, and Rhode Island together to create a this new royal province. Connecticut, New Jersey and New York joined later. Run by a governor-general and councilors appointed directly by the king.
Sir Edmund Andros
Appointed to be the first governor-general. very loyal. Declared all deeds and land titles issued under Massachusetts charter to be worthless, and anyone who wanted a new deed had to pay and annual tax to the government.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange., Bloodless overthrow of King James II that ended the Dominion and established William and Mary as the new leaders.
English Bill of Rights
abolished the king's absolute power to suspend laws and create his own courts. , King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
granted freedom of worship to nearly all Protestants but not to Catholics or Jews.
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Two Treatises of Government.
fundamental rights all people are born possessing, including the right to life, liberty, and property. Locke's idea