ASR 5001-6

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49 terms · ASRs for BEHP 5001, unit 6

A key difference b/t descriptive assessment & f(x)al analysis is:
a. FA examine the antecedent of problem b(x), descriptive assessments do not
b. FA involves the direct manipulation of the relevant variables
c. descriptive assessment allow to ake conclusions about causal, relations, FA does not

b. FA involves the direct manipulation of the relevant variables

T or F? Although FA has proven useful, very few professionals working w/ DD have adopted their use.

false

T or F? Correlational data allows you to determine causal f(x)al relations b/t environmental events.

false

T or F? Pelios et al. showed that research on the use of punishment procedures to treat b(x) disorders has declined since the development of FA methods.

false

A comprehensive assessment for assessing the f(x) of b(x) disorders was developed
a. during the early 1970s by researchers such as Carr & Iwata
b. by those that practiced "b(x) modification"
c. after early empirical demonstrations of control by single environmental contingencies

c. after early empirical demonstrations of control by single environmental contingencies

T or F? One reason offered for why very little research had focused on the environmental determinants of self-injury is that the severity of SIB often suggests the need for immediate attn, thereby discouraging attempts to ID features of the social and physical environment that my serve to maintain self-injury.

true

T or F? Prior to the advent of FA approaches to assessment, problem b(x) was typically treated by superimposing powerful arbitrary contingencies of reinforcement or punishment over existing but often unknown sources of reinforcement for problem b(x).

true

T or F? General guidelines for f(x) assessment suggest that f(x) analysis by conducted before a descriptive assessment is attempted.

false

The term multiple control refers to the understanding that:
a. b(x)s that are topographically distinct must also have different f(x)s
b. one b(x) can be maintained by several different f(x)s
c. all aberrant b(x)s in a person's repertoire are maintained by multiple f(x)s

b. one b(x) can be maintained by several different f(x)s

Large scale studies on SIB reveal that:
a. the common f(x)s account for more than 80% of instances
b. the vast majority of instances involve b(x) that is maintained by automatic reinf.
c. less than half of instances involve aberrant b(x) maintained by one of the common functions

a. the common f(x)s account for more than 80% of instances

The basic methodological feature of an FA of problem b(x) involves ___ & measurement under ___ conditions in which some environmental variable is manipulated.
a. indirect observation, BL & Tx
b. direct observation, test & control
c. indirect observation, BL & Tx
d. direct observation, test & control

b. direct observation, test & control

In an attn condition of an analog FA, "no attn" is the ___, and ___ is the reinforcer/consequence.
a. antecedent, attn
b. control, attn
c. reinforcer, escape
d. EO, toy play

a. antecedent, attn

In a particular analog FA condition, the experimenter delivers a variety of demands to the participant. Contingent upon target b(x), the demands are terminated for 30s. This condition is designed
a. to test if the target b(x) is maintained by neg. reinf. in the form of escape
b. as a control
c. to test for automatic reinf.
d. to test if the target b(x) is maintained by pos. reinf.

a. to test if the target b(x) is maintained by neg. reinf. in the form of escape

In a particular analog FA condition, the experimenter & subject enter the therapy room together, where a variety of toys are. The experimenter periodically delivers attn, independent of b(x). No demands are given. This condition is designed
a. to test if SIB is maintained by pos. reinf. in the form of attn
b. as a control
c. to test if SIB is maintained by automatic reinf.
d. to test if SIB is maintained by neg reinf. in the form of escape

a. to test if SIB is maintained by pos. reinf. in the form of attn

Which best describes why less target b(x) may occur during the control condition of an FA?
a. the MOs and associated consequences arranged in the other conditions are absent in this condition
b. less target b(x) is unlikely to be observed during this condition
c. there are toys present in the control condition
d. the MOs and associated consequences arranged in the other conditions are present in this condition

a. the MOs and associated consequences arranged in the other conditions are absent in this condition

T or F? During an FA, undifferentiated patterns of problem b(x) may occur if the different conditions are not discriminable.

true

T or F? Undifferentiated analysis outcomes are more likely to occur for low rate b(x) (relative to moderate of high rate b(x)).

true

When clinical constraints such as severity of problem b(x) or time limitations prevent extended FAs, which of the following may be preferred?
a. extended alone conditions
b. pariwise comparisons
c. brief FA
d. Tx conditions

c. brief FA

Why may a pairwise FA by effective in IDing b(x)al f(x) when other standard FA arrangements result in undifferentiated responding?
a. promotes discrimination among conditions
b. provides greater opportunity to observe b(x)
c. allows for direct comparison b/t conditions

a. promotes discrimination among conditions

In order to determine if aberrant b(x) persists in the absence of social consequences, which of the following could be conducted after the FA?
a. brief FA
b. Tx evaluations
c. extended alone conditions
d. f(x) communication training

c. extended alone conditions

T or F? Pairwise FA differ from standard FA in that a pariwise analysis compares multiple test conditions w/ a control condition in a given phase.

false

Conducting sessions only before lunch is served to a person suspected of having problem b(x) maintained by edible reinf. is an example of which strategy to enhance FA clarity?
a. enhance MOs
b. use discriminative stimuli
c. alter response measurement
d. vary the control condition

a. enhance MOs

Provided undifferentiated responding is observe during an initial FA, which of the following is NOT an example of what could be done to further assess b(x)al f(x)?
a. conduct extended alone sessions
b. conduct pairwise analysis
c. conduct Tx sessions based on caregiver report
d. make modifications to conditions that are suspected to influence b(x)

c. conduct Tx sessions based on caregiver report

All of the following are example of advantages of experimental analyses except:
a. decreases problem b(x)
b. ID cause and effect relationships
c. isolates relevant variables
d. ID potential Tx effects

a. decreases problem b(x)

T or F? Experimental analyses may be limited in that they may not always ID features of a given situation that occasions problem b(x)

true

Which of the following is not a limitation of experimental analyses.
a. may not ID the full range of the controlling variables
b. may be time and labor intensive
c. analogue conditions may not reflect the natural environment
d. may be limited to identifying correlational relationships

d. may be limited to identifying correlational relationships

The SIT scale permits differentiation of SIB according to:
a. topography, f(x) of self-injury, type of injury, # of injuries, estimate of severity
b. topography, location of injury, type of injury, # of injuries, estimate of severity
c. topography, location of injury, date of injury, # of injuries, estimate of intensity

b. topography, location of injury, type of injury, # of injuries, estimate of severity

T or F? To measure surface trauma for unhealed wounds, data are collected on the location and # of wounds as well as on the severity of the worse wound in that location.

true

T or F? The Number Index score is based on the total # of injuries observed, even less severe injuries.

true

Establishing that a target b(x) warrants serious attn b/c of its risk potential provides a form of
a. internal consistency
b. Tx integrity
c. procedural reliability
d. social validity

d. social validity

If the SIT scale provides a useful way to corroborate or validate observed b(x) change, one would expect:
a. the # & severity indices would increase after an effective Tx was implemented
b. the # & severity indices would decrease after an effective Tx was implemented
c. the efficacy of the Tx should have no influence on these indices

b. the # & severity indices would decrease after an effective Tx was implemented

T or F? Direct measures of preference include the use of surveys, scales, and inventories or checklists.

false

Which methods fo IDing stimulus preference have resulted in the ID of stimuli that f(x)ed more reliably as a reinforcer?
a. staff opinion survey
b. teacher survey
c. systematic preference assessment

c. systematic preference assessment

All of the following are examples of indirect preference assessment methods EXCEPT:
a. the RAISD
b. checklists
c. scales
d. paired choice preference assessment

d. paired choice preference assessment

T or F? Stimuli that are IDd as highly preferred are generally regarded as stimuli that would f(x) as reinforcers.

true

Which of the following is a rationale for conducting a reinforcer assessment?
a. SPAs are just a prediction
b. SPAs are conducted under extremely low effort requirements, often w/ simplistic responses
c. predictions of SPAs should be verified under conditions that more closely parallel actual training contexts
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Predictions made by SPAs ____ guarantee the utility of the stimulus in actual training or treatment
a. do
b. do not

b. do not

In which of the following preference assessments are all stimuli presented in an array simultaneously:
a. paired-choice preference assessment
b. single-stimulus preference assessment
c. multiple-stimulus preference assessment

c. multiple-stimulus preference assessment

According to Fisher and colleagues (1992), which preference assessment method resulted in greater differentiation among stimuli & better predicted relative reinforcer efficacy?
a. paired-stimulus preference assessment
b. single-stimulus preference assessment

a. paired-stimulus preference assessment

Which of these systematic preference assessment methods is the least time consuming?
a. single-stimulus assessments
b. paired-stimulus assessments
c. multiple stimulus assessments

c. multiple stimulus assessments

Which of these systematic preference assessment methods may be best suited for individuals w/ very limited abilities who may have difficulty scanning arrays?
a. single-stimulus assessments
b. paired-stimulus assessments
c. multiple stimulus assessments

a. single-stimulus assessments

In which of the following is most likely to produce false positives b/c individuals may select anything place in front of them?
a. paired-choice assessment
b. single-stimulus assessment
c. multiple-stimulus assessment

b. single-stimulus assessment

Which of the following is a potential disadvantage of the multiple-stimulus preference assessment?
a. may be limited in the number of stimuli you can assess
b. may be relatively insensitive to relative preferences
c. can be very time consuming

a. may be limited in the number of stimuli you can assess

Based on DeLeon, Iwata, & Roscoe (97) study, how should you approach the ID of both food and leisure reinforcers?
a. they can be combined in the same assessment as long as only 1 or 2 food items are included
b. they should be assessed separately
c. they can be combined as long as position preferences are taken into account

b. they should be assessed separately

Within the context of IDing stimulus preferences, a false negative is:
a. an item that is ranked as high preference, but does not f(x) as a reinforcer
b. an item ranked as low preference, but does f(x) as a reinforcer.
c. an item that is ranked as low preference and does not f(x) as a reinf.

b. an item ranked as low preference, but does f(x) as a reinforcer.

In which of the following preference assessments are all stimuli presented in an array simultaneously:
a. paired-choice assessment
b. single-stimulus assessment
c. multiple-stimulus assessment

c. multiple-stimulus assessment

The logic behind duration-based measures of preference is:
a. the longer an individual engages w/ an item, the more likely that item is to be an effective reinf.
b. the longer an individual engages w/ an item, the less likely that item is to be an effective reinf.
c. in a free-operant duration-based preference assessment, if an individual only engages w/ 1 item, that means that only that item would be an effective reinf.

a. the longer an individual engages w/ an item, the more likely that item is to be an effective reinf.

Which of the following is a consideration one must make when conducting preference assessments w/ individuals diagnosed w/ DD?
a. there may be difficulties in including some activities
b. individuals may make arbitrary selections
c. individuals may show selective food preferences
d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The relative reinforcing efficacy of stimuli have been shown to change over time. Therefore, which of the following is true:
a. one should never use reinf.
b. one should only use reinf. that will stay effective
c. one should frequently assess the efficacy of reinf.

c. one should frequently assess the efficacy of reinf.

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