Major nitrogenous waste product of protein breakdown and amino acid catabolism.
Waste product derived from nucleic acid catabolism.
Waste product derived from muscle creatine.
Formation of glucose by the liver or kidneys from pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, or amino acids.
Combination of glomerulus and Bowman's capsule.
A hollow structure lined by epithelial cells, often involved in transport processes such as those in the kidney nephrons.
Functional unit of kidney; has vascular and tubular components.
Tufts of glomerular capillaries at beginning of kidey nephron.
Very small blood vessel withi the glomerulus of the kidney through which plasma is filtered.
Vessel in kidney that carries blood from artery to renal corpuscle.
Blind sac at beginning of tubular component of kidney nephron.
Fluid-filled space within Bowman's capsule into which protein-free fluid filters from the glomerulus.
Renal vessel that conveys blood from glomerulus to peritubular capillaries.
Epithelial cells lining Bowman's capsule, whose foot processes form filtration slits.
Modified smooth muscle cell that surrounds renal glomerular capillary loops; they help to control glomerular filtration rate.
First tubular component of a nephron after Bowman's capsule; comprises convoluted and straight segments.
Loop of Henle
Hairpinlike segment of kidney nephron with descending and ascending limbs; situated between proximal and distal tubules.
Segment of renal tubule into which proximal tubule drains.
Portion of Henle's loop of renal tubule leading to distal convoluted tubule.
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Portion of kidney tubule between loop of Henle and collecting-duct system.
Portion of renal tubules between distal convoluted tubules and renal pelvis; comprises cortical collecting duct and medullary collecting duct.
Cortical Collecting Duct
Primary site of sodium ion reabsorption at the distal end of a nephron.
Medullary Collecting Duct
Terminal component of the nephron in which vasopressin-sensitive passive water reabsorption occurs.
Cavity at base of each kidney; receives urine from collecting-duct system and empties it into ureter.
Inner portion of kidney.
Outer portion of kidney.
Capillary closely associated with renal tubule.
Functional unit of kidney with glomeruli in the deep cortex and a long loop of Henle, which plunges into the medulla.
Blood vessels that form loops parallel to the loops of Henle in the renal medulla.
Functional unit of the kidney contained in the renal cortex snf with a small (or no) loop of Henle.
Specialized sensor cells of renal tubule at end of loop of Henle; component of juxtaglomerular apparatus.
Juxtaglomerular (JG) Cells
Renin-secreting cells in the afferent arterioles of the renal nephron in contact with the macula densa.
Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
Renal structure consisting of JG cells and macula densa; site of renin secretion and sensors for renin secretion and control of glomerular filtration rate.