Turkic military slaves who formed part of the army of the Abbasid Caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries; they founded their own state in Egypt and Syria from the thirteenth to early sixteenth centuries
Pertaining to the middle ages of European history
The name given to themselves by the Aztec people
The period of European history traditionally given as 500-1500
A tower attached to a mosque from which Muslims are called to worship
Were a Chalcolithic (copper age) mound-building Native American culture that flourished in the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally.
A labor system used by Andean societies in which community members shared work owed to rulers and the religious community
A form of plow consisting of a plowshare (blade) and hitch attached to livestock. It turns the soil in one run across the field, depositing the weeds and remains of the previous crop under the soil and raising the rain-percolated nutrients back to the surface. This plow also allowed for plowing while the ground was wet.
In North American archaeology, name given to those people who built mounds in a large area from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Mississippi River to the Appalachian Mts. The greatest concentrations of mounds are found in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys.
A philosophy that blended Confucianism with Buddhism and Daoism
In Incan society, descent through both the mother and father
A representative assembly
People of the Book
A term applied by Islamic governments to Muslims, Christians, and Jews in reference to the fact that all three religions had a holy book
Andean society also known as the Inca
A system of knotted cords of different sizes and colors used by the Incas for keeping records
The holy book of Islam
The holy month of Islam which commemorates the appearance of the angel Gabriel to Muhammad; fasting is required during this month
The Chinese class of well educated men from whom many of the bureaucrats were chosen
The Japanese formal language term for ritual suicide. Hara-kiri is the common language term. Hara-kiri, which literally means "stomach cutting," is a particularly painful method of self-destruction. Only the samurai class was allowed to commit seppuku.
A peasant who is bound to the land he or she works
The body of law that governs Muslim society
The traditional Japanese religion based on veneration of ancestors and spirits of nature
The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family.
Japanese military leaders under the bakufu
The rule of the shoguns in Japan
Muslims who attempt to reach Allah through mysticism
An Islamic ruler
The branch of Islam that believes that the Muslim community should select its leaders; the Sunnis are the largest branch of Islam
An ancient Shinto ritual still performed in the traditional Japanese capital of Kyoto
The payment of a tax in the form of goods and labor by subject peoples
Ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means "master builders." The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c. AD 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán.
The community of all Muslims believers
In medieval Europe, a person who pledged military or other service to a lord in exchange for a gift of land or other privilege
Religious tax, one of the five basic requirements (arkan or "pillars") of Islam. All adult Muslims of sound mind and body with a set level of income and assets are expected to pay zakat.