Psychology Exam 4

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When you are engaging in goal-directed behavior, you may be best described as experiencing

motivation

Homeostasis is a state of

physiological stability

An internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension defines

drive

Which of the following behaviors is consistent with a drive theory of motivation?

eating an apple when hungry

While ____ theories of motivation emphasize internal factors, ____ theories emphasize external factors.

drive; incentive

Most motivational theorists divide motives into two categories consisting of

biological and social motives

Which of the following is not a social motive?

sex motive

A bonus of $100 for completing a work assignment before a deadline is an example of

an incentive

If, after brain damage suffered in a car accident, a person gained 50 pounds in two months you would most likely suspect damage to the

ventromedial hypothalamus

Manipulations that decrease blood glucose level cause ____; manipulations that increase blood glucose level cause ____.

an increase in hunger; a decrease in hunger

When Harvey was a child the only time he ate turnips was when he was at his grandmother's house for Christmas dinner. Now, as an adult, Harvey loves the taste of turnips because he associates them with Christmas at his grandmother's house. In this example, Harvey's preference for the taste of turnips could best be explained using principles of

classical conditioning

Patrick ate a large breakfast. When he arrived for his 8:00 a.m. class the student next to him offered Patrick a large raisin muffin. Even though Patrick was still quite full from breakfast, he ate the muffin that he was offered. In this instance, Patrick's behavior can best be explained using

incentive theories of motivation

Dr. Linzle the neuroscientist has implanted an electrode in the hypothalamus of a rat. When the rat's brain is electrically stimulated, the rat starts to eat again, even if it has just finished a large meal. The electrode is most likely activating the

lateral hypothalamus

William, a subject in a psychology experiment, just received an injection that raised his blood glucose level. William is MOST likely to report

he does not feel hungry

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of the phases of the human sexual response?

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

Masters and Johnson conducted groundbreaking research concerning

the physiology of the human sexual response

Which of the following statements concerning the orgasm phase of the human sexual response is NOT correct?

women are less likely than men to be multiorgasmic

The reduction in sexual tension during the resolution phase of the human sexual response is generally relatively slow or more gradual

if the individual did not experience an orgasm.

According to this theory, the sex that makes the larger investment in offspring (bearing, nursing, etc.) will be more selective of partners than the sex that makes the smaller investment.

parental investment theory

Parental investment theory suggests all of the following except

human females can optimize their reproductive potential by mating with as many males as possible

Evolutionary theory suggests that women place more emphasis than men on the ____ of a potential mate.

social status

Parental investment theory predicts that, in comparison to women, men show ____ interest in sexual activity and ____ willingness to engage in uncommitted sex.

more; more

A person's preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals of the same, the other, or either sex describes the person's

sexual orientation.

If Ken is a gay man, of the following individuals who would be MOST likely to also be gay?

Ken's identical twin brother Nick

The need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence defines the

achievement motive

A person's need for achievement is usually assessed using the

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Royce is telling a story about a character on a TAT card. In his story, Royce focuses on the character's need to win a contest as she prepares a speech that will be presented. He indicates that the character has spent a great deal of time worrying whether the speech may not be good enough to impress the judges and win the contest. Royce's response to this TAT card suggests that he most likely has

a high need for achievement

People high in the need for achievement prefer ______ tasks since these tasks provide an appropriate combination of probability of success and incentive value for success.

moderately difficult

LeDoux proposed that sensory information travels from the thalamus along two routes, a quick route to the ______ and a slower route to areas of the _____.

amygdala; cortex

The three components that any complete treatment of emotion should include are

cognitive, behavioral, physiological

The subjective conscious experience of an emotion describes the

cognitive component

The observation that one individual may experience an airplane flight as an anxiety-arousing situation while another individual may experience an airplane as a routine event reflects that emotion involves

a subjective conscious experience or cognitive component.

Laura is about to take her certification exam that will qualify her as a licensed therapist. As she enters the testing room she feels anxious and nervous. This reaction is part of the

physiological component in Laura's emotional experience

Which of the following is not one of the six fundamental emotions people are generally successful in identifying in photographs?

disappointment

Dr. Ekman, who has conducted a number of studies of facial expressions associated with emotions, found

six fundamental emotions that most everyone agrees on

According to the James-Lange theory, the conscious experience of emotion ____ physiological arousal; according to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion ____ physiological arousal.

follows; coincides with

Walking through the forest you see a bear. All at once, your heart starts pounding, you feel fear, and you run. This description best illustrates the _____ theory of emotion.

James-Lange

Walking in the forest, you see a bear. Your heart starts pounding, you run, and then you feel fear. This description best illustrates the _______ theory of emotion.

Schachter two-factor

Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we distinguish between the experience of different emotions on the basis of

our interpretation of the situation

Imagine that your house is on fire and you are afraid. Which of the following explanations best represents Schachter's two-factor theory?

"My shaking must be due to fear, since my house is on fire"

Which of the following theories asserts that thinking or cognition evolved later than and plays a relatively small role in emotion?

evolutionary theory

The _______ in Japanese society encourage masking emotions such as anger and sadness by exhibiting polite smiling or a neutral expression.

display rules

Close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers defines _______.

attachment

The emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment is termed

separation anxiety

Harlow's research with monkeys raised with two types of artificial mothers found that when frightened, infant monkeys went to the artificial mother that

was made of cloth

How do children develop special attachments to their mothers according to John Bowlby?

the infant is biologically programmed to emit behavior that triggers a protective response from adult females

One-year-old Beth will explore a room when her mother is present. She becomes upset when her mother leaves the room and is quickly calmed when her mother returns. Beth exhibits

a secure attachment

Typically infants with ____ attachments exhibit little, if any, distress when their mothers leave the room.

avoidant

Recent research suggests that adolescents may be prone to engage in risky behaviors such as reckless driving and unprotected sex because the ____ area of the brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood.

prefrontal cortex

Erik Erikson's developmental stages are organized around potential turning points called

psychosocial crises

If an infant's basic biological needs are met by others and sound attachments are formed during the first year of life, the infant will, most likely, successfully resolve the crisis associated with the ____ stage.

trust versus mistrust

During Erikson's crisis of industry versus inferiority, a child should learn to function well in the broader social structure of the neighborhood and school. As a result, the child should gain a sense of competence. This stage occurs from

3 - 6 years of age

The psychologist who contributed significantly to our understanding of the cognitive development of children is

Jean Piaget

The correct order or sequence of Piaget's stages is

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

If a ball that a five-month-old infant is playing with rolls under a chair (and out of sight), the infant will not look for it. Piaget believed that this occurs because the infant

has not developed object permanence

The principle of ____ suggests that physical properties of substances, such as volume, number, and mass, remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or appearance.

conservation

When Sam's mother made him a grilled cheese sandwich for lunch, Sam complained that he wanted two sandwiches because he was super- hungry. After his mother cut his sandwich in half, Sam was satisfied that he would have enough to eat. Sam's behavior indicates that he does not understand ____ and is probably in the ____ stage of cognitive development.

conservation; preoperational

The stage of concrete operations is said to be "concrete" because

facts are taken to be set in stone, not to be given up easily

Water is poured from a short, broad beaker into a tall, skinny beaker. Is there more or less water now? A child answers that it's the same amount, only it's taller. The child is in which stage of cognitive development?

preoperational

Systematic problem-solving efforts are associated with individuals in the ____ stage of cognitive development.

formal operational

Research suggests that infants as young as five months of age

may be able to add and subtract small numbers

When Kohlberg presented moral dilemmas to individuals in order to evaluate their level of moral development, he placed the most emphasis on

the explanation the individual gave concerning the reason for his or her response

Preconventional thinking decides if things are good or bad (moral) on the basis of whether they

bring punishment or reward

Jason and Bradley believe their dad should not drive over the speed limit on their family vacation to Florida. While Jason does not want his dad to get a speeding ticket, Bradley believes that rules are rules and laws are laws and need to be obeyed. Jason's reasoning is characteristic of the ____ level and Bradley's is characteristic of the ____ level of moral development.

preconventional; conventional

Conventional thinking in moral development bases morality (right or wrong) on

society's laws

Individuals at the ____ level of moral development tend to use a personal code of ethics to guide their moral reasoning and behavior.

postconventional

Suggesting that a poor man who stole food to feed his family was right, because human life takes precedence over rules, is an example of

postconventional moral reasoning

A durable disposition or tendency to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations defines

a personality trait

Which of the following personality traits is not one of the "Big Five" traits?

emotional

Julio is extremely dependable and productive, and his friends think he is great at organizing events. Based on the five-factor model of personality, Julio would probably score

high in conscientiousness

Psychodynamic personality theories focus on

unconscious mental forces

The id can be best described as having which of the following statements as its motto?

If it feels good, do it

The superego is Freud's term for

the moral component of personality

Freud believed that conflicts involving ____ are especially important and often have far-reaching consequences.

sexual and aggressive impulses

The largely unconscious reactions used to protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt are

defense mechanisms

While cleaning up after her party last night, Angela forgot to put the leftover crab dip in the refrigerator. When she discovered the now spoiled dip in the morning, Angela said she didn't mind having to throw it out because it wasn't that good anyway. Most likely Angela is using

rationalization

Which of the following is not a psychodynamic personality theorist?

Carl Rogers

According to Jung, the ____ is a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.

collective unconscious

Jung termed emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning in a wide variety of cultures

archetypes

Which of the following definitions of "personality" best reflects the views of B. F. Skinner?

a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations

One of the major points Mischel makes about personality is that

people are much less consistent across situations than most theorists have assumed

The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's ____, according to Rogers.

self-concept

Camilla thinks of herself as a shy person who is often anxious in social settings, however her friends would describe her as outgoing and relaxed. According to Carl Rogers, Camilla is likely to

experience incongruence

Ten-year-old Benjamin is often nervous about bringing report cards home to his parents. Although his parents say they love him, he feels that they only really love him when he obtains excellent grades in school. Based on the theory developed by Carl Rogers, Benjamin perceives his parents' affection as

conditional, and he is likely to develop incongruence in his self-concept

The correct order of the needs in Maslow's hierarchy, from most basic to highest level, is

physiological, safety, love, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization

According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely

inherited

One of the chief goals of terror management theory is to explain why people

need self-esteem.

Terror management theory asserts that much of our behavior is motivated by our needs

for self-preservation and to reduce mortality salience.

How, according to Terror Management Theory, does culture solve the existential crisis created by awareness of death?

it gives members a sense of being part of a enduring legacy by creating stories and traditions

The American cultural conception of self results in children

developing an independent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of personal attributes.

The Asian cultural conception of self results in children

developing an interdependent view of the self and defining themselves in terms of the groups they belong to.

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