an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus
What can induce fever in a human?
*tumor necrosis factor alpha
tumor necrosis factor alpha
TNF- alpha stands for
*stimulates production of acute-phase proteins
proteins that increase rapidly in serum during acute infection, inflammation, or following tissue injury
is a bodily response to cell damage, it is characterized by redness, pain, heat, swelling and sometimes the loss of function
the movement of white blood cells from the blood across blood vessel walls into tissues
the accumulation of damaged tissue and dead microbes, granulocytes, and macrophages
What does a chill indicate in a body?
indicates a rising body temperature, crisis (sweating) indicates the body's temperature is falling
C3 activation can result in?
How do the proteins of the complement system destroy microbes?
bursting of microbe due to inflow of extracellular fluid through transmembrane channel formed by membrane attack complex
How are complement proteins designated?
by an uppercase letter C and are inactive until they are split into fragments (products)
What does the complement system do?
complements the cells of the immune system in destroying microbes
*does not change over the course of person's lifetime
* considered part of the innate immune system
a defensive system consisting of over 30 proteins produced by the liver and found circulating in blood serum and within the tissues
At what temp does a fever cause death?
112-114 degrees F
How does the body increase body temperature when reset by hypothalmus in a fever?
*body constricts blood vessels increasing the rate of metabolism
*new temp maintained until the cytokines are eliminated
The phase of the fever in which skin becomes warm
crisis indicates that body temp is falling
How does the hypothalamus cause fever?
cytokines interleukin-1 with TNF-alpha cause the hypothalamus to release prostaglandins that reset the hypothalamic thermostat at a higher temperature, therby causing fever
abnormally high body temperature, the 3rd component of the second line of defense
Body temperature is controlled by what part of the brain?
How are complement proteins numbered?
C1 to C9 in the order they were discovered
How are complement protein fragments designated?
indicated by lowercase letters a and b
carry out the destructive actions of the C1 through C9 complement proteins
Complement protein cascade
one reaction triggers another, shich in turn triggers another and so on, more product is formed with each succeeding reaction so that the effect is amplified many times as the reactions continue
membrane attack complex
-A molecular complex including complement proteins that generates a -nm diameter pore in a bacterial membrane, causing the cell to die.
chemical released by activated mast cells that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area