Native Americans; land bridge
The first Americans that divided into hundreds of tribes, spoke different languages, and practiced different cultures; migrated from Asia by crossing a land bridge that connected Siberia and Alaska
Sioux, Pawnee, Pueblo, Iroquois
Large North American Native American tribes.
Mayas, Incas, Aztecs
The three Native American cultures that built large empires in Central or South America.
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history. Notable improvements in technology at this time was a main factor in allowing the exploration of America.
Spain was partly conquered by Muslim invaders, and only one Moorish stronghold remained in that country when Isabella, queen of Castile, and Ferdinand, king of Aragon, united their separate Christian kingdoms; defeated Moors of Granada in 1492
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
(term) were ruled by people who shared a common culture and language so they appealed to a certain loyalty that linked cultural and political bonds. People within (term) believed that the government should act for the interests of everyone within its rule and provide help for people when it was needed, as opposed to serving the royal family and suiting their best interests.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
name given to the americas during the time of european exploration and colonisation
The Italian sailor who corrected Columbus's mistake, acknowledging the coasts of america as a new world. America is named after him.
papal line of demarcation
This was an agreement that confirmed Portugal's right to the Eastern route to the Indies, and any land east of a fixed imaginary line that entitled Portugal to Brazil. Spain received the land west of this line. At the time, it seemed as though Portugal had the better end of the bargain, until the Spanish explored the rest of South America. There were two such agreements, but this was the first and gave dramatically less land in South America to Portugal.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
Juan Ponce de León
Spanish Explorer who discovered and named Florida in 1513 while searching for the "Fountian of Youth"
Portuguese navigator, hired by the Spanish, who sailed around the tip of South America in 1520 and crossed the Pacific Ocean, he led the Spanish expedition of 1519-1522 that was the first to sail around the world.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Leads exploration through modern day Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas searching for wealth and an empire to conquer during 1540-1542
Hernando de Soto
Spanish Conquistador; explored in 1540's from Florida west to the Mississippi with six hundred men in search of gold; discovered the Mississippi, a vital North American river.
Spanish imperialists in the New World. They were searching for the 3-G's: gold, God, and glory.
System that took slaves to the New World to work for the Spanish. Required that a tax be paid to the Spanish ruler for each slave brought over.
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Giovanni de Verrazano
Italian navigator, who was commissioned by France to find a Northwest Passage leading through the Americas to Asia; explored part of North America's eastern coast, including New York harbor (France)
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Father Jacques Marquette
French explorer who explored the upper Mississippi River in 1673
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman who followed the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico (to the basin), claiming the region for France and naming it Louisiana in honor of King Louis XIV
An English explorer who explored for the Dutch West India Company. He claimed the Hudson River around present day New York and called it New Netherland. He also had the Hudson Bay named for him
A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks (and profits) among many investors.
Father Junipero Serra
A major Canadian Franciscan friar that founded the mission chain in California. He was a great promoter of the spread of Christianity because of his missions.
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Captain John Smith
English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia his strict discipline helped the Jamestown settlement to survive, said, "He who shall not work shall not eat"
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Seperatists, in 1620. The Seperatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. this colony became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
sub-group of the Puritans who vowed to break completely with the Church of England
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.
Ship used by pilgrims to come to America for religious freedom
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in this area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government. It was one of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, this man (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times
Virginia House of Burgesses
first form of legislative representative government in the New World