Anatomy and Physiology

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Respiratory System

A portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food.

Oropharynx

The largest cartilage of the larynx is the...

thyroid

The C shape of the tracheal cartilages is important because...

Large masses of air can pass through the trachea, large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing and it facilitates turning of the head.

Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because inflammation...

causes fluids to leak into the alveoli and causes respiratory bronchioles to swell and constrict.

Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in...

a loss of surfactant, increased surface tension in the alveoli, and increased tendency to alveolar collapse.

The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are...

alveoli

_______ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.

inspiratory reserve volume

If a patient being tested inhales as deeply as possible and then exhales as much as possible, the volume of air expelled would be the patient's...

vital capacity

Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is...

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract...

the volume of the thorax increases

Each of the following factors affects the rate of external respiration, except the...

diameter of an alveolus

Damage to the phrenic nerves would

force reliance on costal breathing.

The term hypercapnia refers to...

elevated PCO2

The obstructive lung disease in which elastic fibers are lost, leading to collapse of alveoli and bronchioles, is called...

emphysema

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