ch. 8 the middle ages in europe

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vocabulary

byzantine empire

a continuation of the Roman Empire in the Middle East after its division in 395

constantinople

Emperor Constantine,AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.

eastern orthodoxy

Church established in the Byzantine Empire after the split from the Roman Catholic Church; Greek & Russian Orthodox Churches descend from this

code of justinian

compilation of the complex system of Roman laws; became the system of laws for the Byzantine Empire

middle ages

the period of history between classical antiquity and the Italian Renaissance

charlemagne

Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800

feudalism

a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service

lords

People of high rank who received land in exchange for their loyalty

knights

in the Middle Ages, lesser noble who served as a mounted warrior for a lord

serfs

men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection

manor

the mansion of the lord of the manor

manorialism

An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.

three-field system

a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.

roman catholicism

the beliefs and practices of the Catholic Church based in Rome

the pope

Who headed the church in Rome?

crusades

A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.

thomas aquinas

(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology

magna carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215

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