Arthropods

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Studying Arthropods

The cuticle of arthropods is composed of a thicker inner ________ layer, and a thinner outer layer. the ________. The macromolecule that characterizes the cuticle is

procuticle, epicuticle, chitin.

The nonliving exoskeleton inhibits growth. To cope with this situation, arthropods use a process to shed the old exoskeleton called

ecdysis

The ________ have been extinct for 250 million years but they show the basic pattern that started the arthropods.

Trilobites

The characteristics of four pairs of walking legs, a pair of pedipalps, and no mandible or antennae are found in which of the following?

Chelicerata

Which of the following can be recognized by these characteristics: unsegmented carapace, spinelike telson, book gills, and marine habitat

Xiphosurida

The following group that has four pairs of thin walking legs, eats by sucking juices from hydroids, and is particularly common in polar oceans is

Pyncnogonida

Which one of the following is called the giant water scorpion and is known from 200-million-year-old fossils?

Euripterida

Members of the class Arachnida can be differentiated from other arthropods by possession of a

Cephalothorax and Abdomen

Which of the following orders contains members who have a cephalothorax and abdomen with no external segmentation, and these tagmata are joined by a narrow pedicel?

Araneae

Which of the following traits are unique to spiders?

Book Lungs

Which of the following orders is characterized by having an abdomen divided into a preabdomen and a tail-like postabdomen?

Scorpoinida

Which of the following orders is commonly known as "daddy longlegs"?

Opiliones

Which of the following orders differs from the others by having their cephalothorax and abdomen completely fused?

Acari

The mouthparts of ticks are located on an anterior projection called the

Capitulum

Ticks are interesting to epidemiologists because they are second only to mosquitoes as ________ for serious diseases.

Vectors

The following are characteristics of the black widow spider:

small, shiny black, with a red hourglass on the ventral abdomen

Which one of the following diseases is not carried by a tick?

Mange

The crustaceans are the only arthropods with

Two pairs of antennae

Which of the following structures help the maxillae as food handlers?

maxillipeds

The last pair of crustacean appendages that provide swift backward motion and help protect developing young in crustaceans such as crayfish are called

uropods

The crustaceans have a two-part stomach, in the first part is the

gastric mill

Excretory organs and osmoregulatory pores in the crustaceans are located at the base of the ______.

antennae

The crustaceans have two types of eyes; they are the ________ and the ________ eyes.

median, compound

While the term "blueblood" is sometimes used in literature to reference English nobility, some crustaceans actually have blue blood because their respiratory pigment is

hemocyanin

A compound eye is made of many small units that have individual lens and nerves. These structures are called

ommatidia

The primitive larva of the crustaceans is the

naupilius

Which of the following classes can be recognized by having flattened, leaflike appendages used for respiration?

Branchiopoda

Which of the following classes contains the copepods and barnacles?

Maxillopoda

Which of the following classes contains the crabs, shrimp, and krill?

Malacolstraca

Of the maxillopods in the following list, members of the subclass ________ are typically parasitic.

Branchiura

The crustaceans known as krill belong to the group

Notostraca

The subphylum Hexapoda is characterized by having three pairs of legs and includes the ________ and the _____.

Insects, Entognaths

Which of the following classes is characterized by having one pair of appendages per somite except for the first one and the last two somites?

Chilopoda

Which of the following classes is characterized by having two pairs of appendages per abdominal somite?

Diplopoda

Mouthparts of an insect typically contain four parts. These four parts are the

labrum, mandibles, maxillae, and labium.

Insects undergo metamorphosis in order to grow and exploit different habitats. The individual stages in this process are called

Instars

Most insects go through a complete change of body form from larva to pupa to adult; this is called ________ metamorphosis.

holometabolous

In addition to visual and auditory communication, insects use pheromones, which are a form of _____ communication.

Chemical

Bioluminescence is a form of ________ communication.

visual

Which of the following diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes?

all of the above

A term for the condition in which insects parasitize other insects is

parasitoidism

If you wanted to control an insect infestation in your fruit orchard, and wanted to employ something other than pesticides, you might release a

parasitoid

A classic example of an insect with a type of ________ mouthpart would be the mosquito.

sucking

The openings to the respiratory system of insects are the

spiracles

Which of the following are not respiratory mechanisms seen in insects, in either juvenile forms or adults?

book lungs

The term for the stage of the juvenile insect between molts is known as the

instars

If an insect has an egg, nymphal stages, and finally an adult stages, it exhibits ________ metamorphosis.

hemimetabalous

Insects which show the highest degree of social behavior include the

ants and bees

The arthropods have a metameric body with segments organized into functional groups called _____.

tagmata

The venom of the brown recluse spider is _____, destroying tissues and skin.

hemolytic

Hormones secreted by the ___ iinhibit molting in decapods.

X-organs

Which of the following diseases are transmitted by flies?

Typhoid

A cuticle is different from a tegument in that a cuticle is _______, while a tegument is

dead, alive

Members of subclass Pentastomida are considered to be _________ feeders and are found in

parasitic, vertebrate tissues

Of the groups studied in this chapter, the pentastomids are the only group that lacks a mouth and digestive system.

false

• Arthropods are successful because they have

All of these

• The trilobites are

All extinct

• Chilopoda

poison claws

• The Diplopoda

bear two pairs of legs on most body segments

Spiders

have chelicerae that function as fangs

• Members of the class Arachnida have

cephalothorax, abdomen

• Crustaceans

Have an open circulatory system

• The class Insecta

Has more species than any other group of animals

• Insects differ from other arthropods because insects have

wings.

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