first convened in 1864, it was also known as the International Working Men's Association. It was an eclectic gathering eventually headed by Karl Marx, who used the First International to spread his ideas about socialism and the need for revolution in the capitalist society. Members of the First International hoped that the Paris Commune would be the spark for revolution across Europe, although it obviously failed.
the disbelief in any claims of ultimate knowledge
taff vale decision
commonly known as the Taff Vale case is a formative case in UK labour law. It held that at common law, unions could be liable for loss of profits to employers that were caused by taking strike action. It was made with outrage by the labour movement, was a central cause in the establishment of the UK Labour Party and was soon reversed by the Trade Disputes Act 1906.
a radical political movement that advocates bringing industry and government under the control of labor unions
sought to bring communist goals by means of gradual change and negotiation
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.
Chief spokesman for Darwin - "Darwin's Bulldog" who got embroiled in controversy between Church and science. Specifically, represented Darwin's findings at debate with Bishop of Oxford. Obviously, theory didn't square with Bible.
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
French revisionist socialist who repudiated revisionist doctrines to achieve a unified socialist state
French stockbroker turned painter, pioneered expressionist techniques and fled to South Pacific
pope leo XIII
wrote Rerum Novarum
a Czech-German philosopher and politician. He was a leading theoretician of Marxism. He became the leading promulgator of Orthodox Marxism after the death of Friedrich Engels.
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis