LC Biology 2.1 Cell Structure

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Cell organelles and the microscope

Protoplasm

All living parts of cell

Cytoplasm

Jelly like substance which surrounds the nucleus and contains organelles

Plasma membrane

Surrounds cell. Function: Control entry and exit of molecules

Cell wall

Function: supports the cell

Vacuole

Function: gives cell strength and shape and store materials

Mitochondria

Supply energy to the cell, respiration occurs here

Chloroplasts

Green structures in plants where photosynthesis takes place

Ribosomes

Function: make proteins by combining amino acids

Nucleus

Controls the cell. Contains chromatin

Nucleolus

Part of the nucleus. Makes ribosomes

Nuclear pores

Allow mRNA to pass in and out of the nucleus

Chromatin

Chromosomes when not dividing

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid. Found in chromosomes and chromatin

Ultrastructure

Fine detail of cell as seen with electron microscope

Prokaryotic

Cells which do NOT have a nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles

Eukaryotic

Cells which have a nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles

Plant cells

Have cell walls, chloroplasts, and large vacuoles

Animal cells

Do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts, and only small, if any, vacuoles

Simple microscope

Microscope made of only one lens

Compound microscope

Microscope made of two lenses

Electron microscope

Microscope used to show the ultrastructure of cells

Using a microscope

Place slide on stage. Examine under low power before high power. Use coarse focus then fine focus.

Magnification

Eyepiece power X Objective lens power

Coverslip

Prevents samples from drying out and prevents lens from getting wet

Lower coverslip at angle

Prevents air bubbles from being trapped

Methylene blue

Stain used for animal cells - turns nuclei blue

Iodine

Stain used for plant cells - shows up membranes and starch

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