Biology Prentice Hall 9th Grade

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Vocabulary for Chapter 2.3 and 2.4

Monomer

a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

Macromolecules

large polymers

Polymers

large compound formed from combination's of many monomers

Carbohydrate

an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals

Monosaccharide

Any of several carbohydrates, such as tetroses, pentoses, and hexoses, that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis. Also called simple sugar.

Polysaccharide

large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides

lipid

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

Nucleic Acids

macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

Nucleotide

monomer of a nucleic acid

RNA

ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

Protein

macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Amino Acids

building blocks of proteins

Chemical Reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals

Reactant

a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

Product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

Activation Energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

Catalyst

substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

Enzyme

protein that acts as a biological catalyst

Substrate

the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment

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