Psychology Homework 4

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Early adulthood is linked with childhood in that:

prior life experiences influence what we are like in adulthood.

If researchers measure an individual's self-concept at ages 10, 20, 30, and 40 years, where are they likely to find the most self-concept stability?

between the ages of 20 and 30

A research team is conducting a longitudinal assessment of personality development, measuring each individual's personality traits at ages 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 40 years. Which of the following would most likely be found in this study?

The closer the ages of assessment, the more continuous development appears to be.

Research studies linking early infant attachments with parents and later attachments in adult romantic relationships have suggested that:

securely attached infants usually become securely attached adults in romantic relationships, but this association may be lessened by stressful and disruptive experiences in childhood.

What percentage of adults describes themselves as being securely attached?

60-80

Results from a recent study linking adults' current attachment styles with other aspects of their lives have shown that adults with insecure attachment styles tend to be:

more likely to be depressed than securely attached adults.

Shelley has been dating Morgan for about a month how. Although she agreed to date him with some reluctance, she often distances herself from Morgan. She will decline to go out on a date even though she has no better plans, but will also feel lonely when the evening comes and she is not with Morgan for the evening. Shelley may be demonstrating a(n) _________ attachment style.

avoidant

Secure attachment to parents during childhood correlates with:

more satisfaction with adult relationships.

Which aspect of love becomes increasingly important to the young adult?

intimacy

Researchers (and regular people) have defined love in many different ways. Which of the following dimensions tend to be included in most definitions of love?

intimacy

What is Erik Erikson's psychosocial crisis for the person in early adulthood?

intimacy versus isolation

According to Erik Erikson, if individuals do not develop intimacy, they face:

isolation.

According to Erik Erikson, achievement of intimacy requires that an individual:

has achieved identity.

According to Erik Erikson, achieving intimacy means to be able to:

find oneself while losing oneself in another.

Angelina is having some difficulty with her boyfriend. She wants to maintain a close and supportive relationship, but at times she feels smothered by the relationship. Angelina is:

experiencing a conflict between intimacy and independence.

According to the author of your text, relationships in early adulthood strive to balance:

independence, identity, and intimacy.

Relationships with spouses and lovers tend to differ from relationships with friends in the areas of:

sexuality and infatuation.

Eros/passionate love is:

romantic love.

Romantic love differs from both affectionate love and friendship in its:

degree of sexual desire.

According to researcher Ellen Berscheid, the most important ingredient of romantic love is:

sexual desire.

Penelope is describing her marriage of 15 years: "My husband and I were eating breakfast the other day. Neither of us was talking, both of us just reading and thinking our own thoughts. But it was a very comfortable silence, and I love it!" What aspect of their relationship does this illustrate?

affectionate love

What is needed for a couple to remain happy together after their romantic love fades?

Romantic love is replaced by affectionate love which is based on a reduction in anxiety about being lonely and a comfortable familiarity.

Julie describes how she feels about Mark: "I'm very physically attracted to him, but we aren't what you would call emotionally close. I love being with him, but I don't know that this will be a long-lasting relationship." According to Robert Sternberg's theory of love, which type of love is Julie experiencing?

infatuated love

Which of the following is NOT a component of Sternberg's triarchic theory of love?

consummation

Susan and Eduardo say that although they are not as physically attracted to one another as they once were, they are emotionally very close and are committed to making their relationship work. Which of the following would Robert Sternberg say is TRUE about their love?

They are likely to be happy together for a long time.

Kristin and Greg have been dating each other for several years. When Kristin is asked by a friend to describe her feelings for Greg, she explains that she feels a deep sense of caring for him and often desires to have him near her. She does not, however, mention any strong sexual urges or desires for Greg. Which type of love is Kristin expressing for Greg?

affectionate

According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of love, consummate love is characterized by:

passion, intimacy, and commitment.

According to Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of love, affectionate love is characterized by:

intimacy and commitment.

According to research, the number of men between the ages of 20 and 29 years who reported that they were single in 2006 had risen to ____ percent in the United States.

75

In general, being single offers the potential advantage of _________ but the potential disadvantage of ________.

autonomous decision-making; lack of intimacy

Which of the following is a common problem of being single?

finding a niche in a marriage-oriented society

Julia, who has just turned 30 years old, has never married. She is likely to feel:

more pressure from society to get married.

In 1970, approximately _____ million American couples reported that they cohabitated before getting married; in the year 2005, more than ______ million reported that they had cohabitated before getting married.

½; 6.5

In which country is cohabitation virtually universal before marriage?

Sweden

Rob and Alise have just moved in together, so that they can spend more time with each other and get to know each other better. Research indicates that:

within 1 year Rob and Alise will no longer be living together.

Research suggests that:

cohabiting before marriage increases the likelihood of divorce.

Suzie and Richard are cohabitating, whereas Becky and Bernard are married. It is likely that:

compared to Becky and Bernard, Suzie and Richard are less likely to believe in marriage.

Since the early 1900s, the goal of maintaining a stable marriage has:

decreased in its level of relative importance.

The major change in the last 60 years that has increased the fragility of marriages is:

the desire for personal fulfillment both inside and outside of marriage.

If American men and women are going to get married at some point in their life, the average age for a first marriage as of 2007 was around:

27 for men, 26 for women.

When men and women report how happy they are in their marriage, the trend is that:

husbands tend to be happier.

One of the benefits of marriage is:

increased longevity.

Between 1980 and 2007 the divorce rate in the United States:

increased significantly.

Which of the following factors is NOT associated with an increase in divorce?

marrying late in life

When couples divorce in the United States, they are most likely to do so during which years of marriage?

5th to 10th

On average, divorced adults remarry within __ years after divorcing.

3

With regard to the timing of remarriage, in the United States:

men tend to remarry sooner than women do.

Whereas first-married couples have the greatest chance of divorcing after _____ year(s) of marriage, remarried couples are more likely to divorce in the ________ of marriage.

5 to 10; first several years

All of the following are inaccurate myths about gay and lesbian couples, EXCEPT:

some committed gay couples may have an open relationship that allows the possibility of sex outside the relationship.

Hannah understands her husband very well. She knows that on Sundays he likes to watch football on television, so she often arranges play-dates for their kids so she can leave him alone to watch the games. Sam also knows Hannah very well, and realizes that she is not a "morning person." On Saturdays, Sam gets out of bed early without disturbing Hannah, wakes up the kids, and watches cartoons on television with them while Hannah sleeps in. John Gottman would say that Sam and Hannah have a good set of:

love maps.

Gary is a psychologist who does a lot of work writing textbooks for publishing companies. His wife, Zola, is a stay-at-home mom. Gary asks Zola if she can help him by doing some of the "busy" work on his projects, like re-numbering items, spell-checking his work, and formatting documents. By getting her involved, Gary is more able to spend his time focusing on the content of his project. According to Gottman, which of the following goals of marriage is accomplished when Gary and Zola work together like this?

creating shared meaning

Adults' expectations about their roles as parents:

vary widely from couple to couple.

Which of the following is NOT one of the outcomes of married couples deciding to have only one child?

Men invest less time in fathering.

Cassie waited until she was well established in her career before having children. Which of the following is likely to be TRUE for Cassie?

She will have more income for child-rearing expenses than a younger mother would have.

Which one of the following is NOT an advantage for having a child earlier rather than later in life?

parents know better what they want from their family roles

Which of the following is NOT one of the recommendations for having a successful and happy life after divorce that is cited by your author?

Recommit yourself to your physical health and well-being.

Which of the following was a main complaint made by women about their husbands, according to Tannen (1990)?

"He doesn't listen to me anymore."

Deborah Tannen analyzed the talk of men and women and found that compared with women, men more commonly engage in _________ talk, because for men, talk is for ________.

report; information

For men, talk is ________, whereas for women, talk is ________.

informational; relational

Fluid intelligence is the ability to:

reason abstractly.

In middle adulthood, __________ intelligence continues to increase.

crystallized

A reasonable explanation for why 40-year-olds and 60-year-olds show differences in intelligence test scores is:

cohort effects.

Laura is in her 40s. Which of the following of her abilities will decline in the next 10 years?

numerical abilities

The Seattle Longitudinal Study concluded that middle age is a time of:

peak performance for verbal abilities and verbal memory.

An adult in middle age will do most poorly on which of the following tasks?

hitting the brakes when the light turns red

Michelle is upset because she believes her memory has been getting worse since she entered middle age. She finds it harder to remember a grocery list or telephone number, although she does not have difficulty with information she uses often, such as her address or Social Security number. Which of the following is probably TRUE about Michelle?

Michelle is typical of middle-aged people in her ability to remember information.

Which of the following strategies would be most helpful in improving memory in middle age?

Use organization and imagery to assist the remembering of specific information.

In general, why are 40-year-olds better problem-solvers than 20-year-olds?

they have more experience

In middle age, the role of work __________ in people's lives.

is very central

At age 45, Dena wants to begin a new leisure activity. Which of the following would NOT fit the definition of leisure?

selling ceramics out of her home

Which of the following is NOT a reason that leisure may be an especially important aspect of middle adulthood?

inevitability of death

According to information in Chapter 13, what will be the balance of leisure and work for most individuals during middle adulthood?

They will participate in leisure more and work less.

One reason that leisure is important in middle adulthood is that:

it prepares middle-aged adults for retirement.

What percentage of Americans consider themselves to be religious?

70

Compared with men's involvement in religion, women are more likely to:

believe in a higher power or presence.

Which group has a stronger interest in religion?

women

As we age, our level of spirituality:

increases.

Which statement best characterizes the nature of religion's influence on Americans' lives?

The majority of Americans engage in some sort of spiritual practice.

Recent research suggests that religion can promote physical health due to:

all of these

According to Victor Frankl, the three most distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:

spirituality.

The seventh stage of Erikson's life-span theory is the characteristic of middle age. What name did Erikson give this stage?

generativity versus stagnation

In Erik Erikson's theory, adults strive for generativity to achieve a sense of:

immortality.

As he looks back over his life, Chris realizes that his work was not as important to him as he believed, and that he lost too much valuable time with his children. If he could do it over again, he would work less and spend more time with his children. According to Erik Erikson, Chris is experiencing some degree of:

stagnation.

Through ________ generativity, adults develop skills that are passed down to others.

work

Examining the theories of Erik Erikson, a study was conducted by Carol Ryff. She concluded that _________ adults were particularly concerned about generativity.

middle-aged

Peter, a 20-year-old, is in the ________ phase, according to Levinson.

novice

According to Levinson the transition from the teens to early adulthood was marked by two tasks. They are:

exploring possibilities of adult living and developing a stable life structure.

According to Levinson's research on the midlife transition, most men:

found it to be a tumultuous and psychologically painful time.

Bernard is trying to come to grips with the reality that he is no longer a young man, and he spends more time than ever before contemplating his future. According to Levinson, Bernard is ________ years old.

40

According to Levinson, the change to middle adulthood requires that the adult male come to grips with four major conflicts. Which of the following is NOT one of these conflicts?

being attractive versus being unattractive

Daniel Levinson's theory of adult development can be criticized because it:

was based on interviews with men only.

What did Levinson's research conclude about women in midlife transition?

There are no real significant differences between how men and how women fare in midlife transition.

Earlier views were that midlife crises are common in middle adulthood. Currently, adult development theorists believe that the high prevalence of such crises:

has been exaggerated.

A major criticism of the theory of the midlife crisis is that:

it has been greatly exaggerated.

An important concern about the adult-stage theories of Erikson, Levinson, and Vaillant is that they:

do not account well for individual differences in adult development.

Stage theories of development emphasize _______, whereas the life-events approach focuses on _______.

similarities; differences

An assumption that underlies the contemporary life-events approach to adult development is that adult development is:

development is a result of life events, our adaptation to those events, and the life-stage context that encapsulates those events.

At age 47, Renaldo is divorced and is moving to another state to find a new job. According to the ________ approach to understanding adult development, we can say that Renaldo is entering a new stage in life.

life-events

The ________ approach emphasizes mediating factors and sociohistorical context, among other factors, to explain individual development.

contemporary life-events

The ________ life-events approach emphasizes that the manner in which life events influence an individual's development depends not only on these events but also upon mediating factors.

contemporary

The life-events approach to understanding adult development has been criticized because it:

focuses on major life events but not on daily experiences as stressors.

Professor Weinstein is discussing the contemporary life-events approach to development. He criticizes this theory for:

placing too much emphasis on change.

A recent study of stress revealed that middle-aged adults experience ________ "overload" stressors compared with young and older adults.

more

Cohort effects are differences based on:

historical context.

Why is the social clock an important consideration when understanding development?

It may differ for different generations and indicate different age ranges for completing developmental tasks.

Stewart, at 38 years old, is not yet married, although most of his close friends have been married for years. Because of this, Stewart feels:

stress.

Sandra's mother is concerned about Sandra's lack of interest in marrying and having children. She told Sandra, "When I was your age, I had already found a good husband and settled down." Sandra and her mother:

have different social clocks.

How has the social clock changed over the last few decades?

It is more variable from person to person now than it was in the past

The adult stages of development proposed by Levinson and Vaillant may not have taken into account differences in the social clock. This means that their results:

may not be valid for those born in a different historical period than the subjects in their studies.

Cross-cultural studies show that in nonindustrialized countries, the concept of middle age is:

often missing; these cultures only refer to adults as young or old.

Why is it difficult to identify a midlife crisis in other cultures?

Many other cultures do not have a well-defined concept of midlife.

Middle adulthood for women is:

quite dissimilar for women of different cultures.

In the Gusii culture of Kenya, most middle-aged adults:

do not have a clearly labeled midlife crisis.

Stages of adulthood in the Gusii culture of Kenya are defined by:

events in a person's life.

In general, the argument that middle adulthood has advantages for women in nonindustrialized cultures is based on the idea that women in these cultures typically:

gain respect in the community as they age.

Mngada is in middle adulthood in her native culture, a nonindustrialized country. According to what is known about midlife in different cultures, we can expect that Mngada will probably:

not experience much of a midlife crisis.

Which of the following is NOT one of the big five personality traits identified by Costa and McCrae?

adaptability

All but one of the following are members of the big five set of personality traits described by Costa and McCrae. Which one is the exception?

sensitivity

Of Costa and McCrae's Big Five personality traits, which one is most likely to increase in early and middle adulthood?

conscientiousness

Which of the following is one of Costa and McCrae's Big Five personality traits?

extraversion

According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, the superfactor called extraversion was complex for older adults until it was divided into two sub-traits. They are:

social dominance and social vitality

According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, in early adulthood, _________ decreases.

neuroticism

According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, in early adulthood, ________ increases.

openness to experience

According to Costa and McCrae's study on adult personality development, in middle adulthood, ________ increases.

agreeableness

Chuck, who is in his late 50s, is less ________ than his son, who is 20 years younger.

neurotic

Which of the following best summarizes the results of the major longitudinal studies of personality development?

Over time, some aspects of personality change, whereas others remain stable.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning the results of studies on adult personality?

The studies indicate both stability and change in adult personality.

In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics was generally stable across time for the adult?

self-confidence

In the Berkeley longitudinal studies, which of the following characteristics generally changed across time for the adult?

nurturance or hostility

According to the research of Vaillant, which of the following characteristics in middle age was the best predictor of having an enduring and happy marriage between the ages of 75 and 80?

generativity

Theorists of a cumulative personality model of development would agree that:

personality, overall, becomes more stable as we age.

The research of Caspi and Roberts (2001) has generally concluded that as we age the main quality of personality is increasing:

stability

Middle-aged Americans agree that a major component of their well-being involves:

positive relationships.

Allan and Jan are a middle-aged couple going through a divorce. They have both agreed that divorce is the best solution for them. Which of the following is likely?

Both Allan and Jan will be better able to use the divorce as a way to make positive changes in their lives than they could have several years ago.

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), divorced adults reported that they had generally stayed in their marriages and postponed their divorces because of:

their children.

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), _________ divorced adults reported that they had made the right decision to dissolve their marriages.

3 out of 4

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the person most likely to initiate a divorce was:

the wife.

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older women cited for wanting a divorce was:

verbal, physical, or emotional abuse.

In a survey conducted by AARP (2004), the primary reason middle-aged and older men cited for wanting a divorce was:

no obvious problems; they just fell out of love.

Stephan and Suzanne have just waved good-bye to their youngest daughter as she leaves for her honeymoon; she is the last of their children to leave home. Stephan turns to Suzanne and says, "Free at last!" Suzanne feels happier than she has in years. Stephan and Suzanne are:

normal in their response to the departure of their children.

The empty nest syndrome implies that parents:

have few interests and activities other than their children.

Which of the following is TRUE about the empty nest syndrome?

It is an uncommon problem for most middle-aged adults.

Trevor and Michelle's last child has just left home to attend college. According to research, this will be a time when:

they will have increased martial satisfaction.

The main reason that some children delay leaving home until early adulthood is that:

they do not have enough money to live on their own.

Mary is unhappy about her 24-year-old daughter's request to move back home after college. Which of the following is likely to be Mary's main concern?

the effect of her daughter's presence on Mary's privacy

In general, the situation of adult children living in their parents' home is most successful when:

parents and children agree to treat one another as adults and set mutually acceptable rules for the living situation.

When middle adulthood arrives, most relationships among brothers and/or sisters are:

close.

Ron and his sister, Sarah, are both in their mid-50s and have a close personal relationship. Most research on sibling relationships suggests that:

they had a close relationship throughout childhood and early adulthood, too.

Girard and his sister were never close growing up. Now that they are adults, their relationship is probably:

distant.

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