Ch. 3 IDs (Condensed)

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APUSH Chapter 3 IDs, with shortened definitions. List from The Unfinished Nation

Indentured Servitude

This practice developed out of England. People would temporarily bind themselves to masters for fixed terms (4-5 years) in exchange for passage to America, food and shelter.

Humoralism

A theory popularized by Galen, a Roman physician. His theory argued that the human body was governed by 4 "humors" that were in bodily fluids, blood, phlegm and yellow and black bile.

The Middle Passage

The long journey to the Americas from Africa, in which as many as 11 million slaves traveled between the seventeenth and nineteenth century. The majority of the slaves in the U.S. came from the West Indies. Named as the second leg of triangular trade.

Slave Codes

Laws that were passed in the early 18th century allowing American (permanent) slavery to become legal. These laws were based solely off color and individuals of mixed color had no exception.

Huguenots

Also known as French Calvanists, these individuals left Roman Catholic France for the Colonies. About 300,000 traveled after the Edict of Nantes (it guaranteed civil liberties) was revoked.

"Pennsylvania Dutch"

A nickname for the approximately 3,000 Palatinate (a German region frequently invaded) who mostly settled in Pennsylvania. The English nicknamed them the Pennsylvania Dutch, a flaw of their nationality, Deutsch.

Saugus works

The first effort to establish a metals industry in the colonies. Which failed in 1668 after 22 years in business due to financial problems.

"Triangular Trade"

An inaccurate description of trade in the 17th and 18th centuries. Trade was not so simple back then and it was actually a complicated maze between the colonies, England, Africa and the West Indies. The trade was risky and made difficult by the British Navigation Acts which prevented merchants from harboring foreign competition in the colonies.

Stono Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.

Town Meeting

A characteristic of Puritan Communities which were based not upon the farm but upon towns. each town had a "covenant" which bound residents together religiously and socially. The meeting was participated by adult males who were members of the church.

Selectmen

These men were chosen to run a town's affairs in a Puritan community. They were adult males who were full members of their church. One could gain full membership by giving evidence of being among the elect assured of salvation.

Primogeniture

A system in England that entitled the firstborn son to his dad's property. This system was not adopted in New England, instead land was divided up between the sons. This new system of division eventually led to problems when land was too small to divide up and no more land was available.

Jeremiads

Sermons of despair preached by Puritan ministers. These sermons came at a time when the Puritan Church's power seemed to be declining. The sermons declined the signs of the loss of power. The Puritan faith managed to remain strong.

Declension

The loss of power of the Puritan church which seemed to be a big problem to New Englanders. The population was moving westward and communities began to lose touch with organized religion.

The Great Awakening

The first American revival (religious). ). The message of the revival emphasized the potential for people to break away from the constraints of the past and to start anew with their relationship with God. This reflected the views of people to break away from their families and start new lives. Its occurrence was in the 1730s and reached its climax in the 1740s.

John and Charles Wesley

Powerful evangelists of the Great Awakening. The helped spread the message of the revival and founded Methodism. The two visited Georgia and other colonies in the 1730s.

George Whitefield

A powerful open-air preacher who made evangelizing tours through the colonies and drew large crowds.

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

New Lights

A result of the Great Awakening, the term New Lights was used to refer to revivalists. Some revivalists denounced book learning but others saw education as an opportunity to further religion and the founded or led schools for the training of ministers.

Old Lights

A term originating during the Great Awakening which was one of two used to separate existing congregations. This term was used to define traditionalists.

The Enlightenment and Natural Law

New scientific knowledge that regulated the workings of nature and was the product of some great scientific and intellectual discoveries in Europe during the 17th century. The new knowledge encouraged thinkers to celebrate the power of human reason and to argue that rational thought, not just faith, could create progress. These new ideas produced a growing interest in education and heightened concern with politics and government.

Poor Richard's Almanac

The most famous almanac of the 18th century published by Enlightenment thinker Benjamin Franklin. Besides the Bible, Almanacs were the most wide-spread literature in the colonies as they covered medical advice, navigational and agricultural information. Most importantly they included weather predictions which farmers used in printing crops.

Publick Occurrences

The first newspaper in the colonies which was published in Boston in 1690 using a relatively advanced printing facility. It was the first step to a large newspaper industry. By 1765 the Stamp Act, which taxed printed goods, created such a furor as printing technology had become central to colonial life.

"dame schools"

Named for the fact that these schools were led by widows or unmarried women. These schools were typically held in private classrooms in the homes of the widows. Other schools sprang up in MA, a law required towns to support a public school and the Quakers and other sects operated their own church schools.

Harvard College

The first American college which was established in 1636 by Puritan theologists as a training center for ministers. This College was named after John Harvard who had left it his library and half his estate.

William and Mary College

In 1693 this college, named for the English Queen and King, was established in WIlliamsburg, Virginia by Anglicans. Eventually other colleges popped up to contest the views of Harvard and William and Mary. Today these other colleges are known as Yale and Princeton. Though these colleges were created with religion in mind they offered courses in logic, ethics, physics, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, Latin, Hebrew and Greek.

John Peter Zenger

A publisher in New York who criticized the government and got away with it because his criticism was factually true. This verdict showed that the Colonial legal system, though very similar to England's system, was not an exact replica. The verdict also removed some restrictions on the freedom of the press.

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