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Acid Rain (Acid Precipitation)

precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids

Air Pollution

when harmful substances build up in the air to unhealthy levels, air pollutants can be solids, liquids, or gases

Primary Pollutants

pollutants put directly into the air by human activity

Secondary Pollutants

form when a primary pollutant comes into contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances and a chemical reaction takes place

Smog

results from chemical reactions that involve sunlight, air, auto exhaust, and ozone

Short term effects of air pollution

headache, nausea, irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, tightness in the chest, coughing, upper respiratory infections, may worsen asthma and emphysema

Long term effects of air pollution

Emphysema, lung cancer, heart disease, may damage lungs of children

Sick-building syndrome

condition when buildings have very poor air quality

Asbestos

includes several minerals that form in long, thin fibers and are valued for their strength & resistance to heat

Noise Pollution

-affects human health and quality of life
-airplanes, city traffic, home appliances etc.
-heath problems include loss of hearing, high blood pressure, stress, loss of sleep

Light Pollution

-Inefficient lighting leads to energy waste
-fix:billboards lit from about shooting down

Why is smog so common in LA?

Warm and sunny= great environment for trapping and forming air pollutants. Built in a valley surrounded by mountains. Air is trapped off by this natural bowl. When the air higher up is warmer than the air closer to the ground, the warm air acts as a lid that keeps pollutants in.

Acid

pH 1-5

Base

pH 8-14

Acid Shock

acidic snow melts and rushes into lakes causing rapid change in pH

Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement

(pollutants released in US end up in Canada)
-acid rain that falls in southeastern Canada often comes from pollution produced in US
-both countries agreed to reduce acidic emissions that flowed across the Canada-US boundary

Acid Rain Effects

-Toxic metals (Al+Hg) released into environment (poison to humans)
-lead to increase in respiratory problems in children
-decrease in fish number
-can dissolve calcium carbonate in building materials

Most polluted cities in the WORLD

Ahwaz, Iran
Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Sanagaj, India
Ludhiana, India
Queetta, Pakistan

What %s make up clean air

Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
(only important ones)

SO2 & NO come from

Fossil Fuels

Sources of pollution (man made & natural)

household products, power plants, motor vehicles (CO, NO, VOCs)
coal burning power plants
Particulate Matter-vehicles, incinerators, power plants, mining, wood-burning fireplaces
natural pollution (volcano)

Causes Smog

Car exhaust

Asbestos, Radon, & Ozone- causes & effects

Radon gas- lung cancer
Asbestos-damage lungs cause trouble breathing
Ozone-skin cancer

ID as primary or secondary pollutant
acid rain
CO
Ground level Ozone

acid rain- secondary
CO- Primary
Ground Level Ozone- secondary

How does acid rain form, where does it come from? Causes? (in a diagram)

http://www.epa.gov/bioiweb1/images/acid.jpg

Most Air polluted city in the world & country (top 3)?

world- Ahwaz, Iran
US-1.) Bakersfield, Calif
2.) Fresno, Calif
3.) Riverside, Calif

pH

a value that indicated the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0-14, based on the proportion of H+ ions.

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