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intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

general intelligence

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

factor analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation of drawing

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

intelligence test

a method for assessing an individual's aptitudes and comparing them with those of other's using numerical scores

mental age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8year old is said to have a mental age of 8

Stanford-Binet

the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test

intelligence quotient

defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. average is 100

achievement tests

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

aptitude tests

a test designed to predict a person's future performance

Wechsier Adult Intelligence Scale

the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with performance of a pretested group

normal curve

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.

validity

the extent to which a test measures of predicts what it is supposed to

content validity

the extent to which test samples of the behavior that is of interest

predictive validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

intellectual disability

formally referred to as mental retardation; a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty to adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound

down syndrome

a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

emotion

a response of the whole organism, involving 1: physiological arousal 2: expressive behaviors, 3: conscious experience

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

Cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion-arouding stimulus simultaneously triggers 1: physiological responses and 2: the subjective experience of emotion

two-factor theory

the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion on must 1: by physically aroused and 2: cognitively label the arousal

psychological disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivilty

medical model

the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured often through treatment in a hospital

DSM-IV-TR

the American psychiatric association's diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, with an updated "text revision"; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

mood disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

bipolar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

Which of the following statements concerning the labeling of disordered behaviors is NOT true?

Labels interfere with effective treatment of psychological disorders.

Psychiatrists and psychologists are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is

personally distressful

the discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of

the medical model

toddlers who watch lots of TV are, at age 7, more likely than average to display symptoms of

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

which of the following is true of the medical model

it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatablw

Mr. Hunt believes that he is the president of the United States and that he will soon become the "king of the universe" mr hunt is most clearly suffering from

delusions

janet, whose class presentation is titles "current views on the causes of schizophrenia" concludes her talk with the statement

"genes may predispose some people to react to particular experiences by developing schizophrenia

people born in ___ during the month of ____ are at increased risk for schizophrenia

australia; september

one of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is

an expressionless face

disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning signs of

schizophrenia

feelings of worthlessness are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder

one way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to

participate more often in activities they consider pleasant and rewarding

to break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-congnitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms that are both

external and temporary

professor pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ____ perspective

evolutionary

failures are most likely to lead to depression if they are explained in terms that are

internal, stable, and global

inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by

the biopsychosocial approach

which of the following is true of the medical model

it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable

if research indicated that phobias result from a chemical imbalance in the central nervous system, thsi would most clearly give added credibility to

the medical model

after anika learned that her history professor had suffered an anxiety disorder, she concluded that the professor's tendency to talk loudly was simply a way of disguising feelings of personal insecurity. this best illustrates the

biasing power of diagnostic labels

one study monitored teens and young adults who had two relatives with schizophrenia. those who subsequently developed schizophrenia displayed a tendency to be ____ prior to the onset of their disorder

socially withdrawn

a person with schizophrenia whose speech is so full of unrelated words and phrases is said to be exhibiting

word salad

symptoms of withdrawal following the disappearance of hallucinations and delusions are most indicative of ___ schizophrenia

residual

false beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called

delusions

mania is most likely to be experienced by those suffering

bipolar disorder

the rise of western individualism appears most clearly responsible for an increase in

depression

a therapist believes that Chet is chronically depressed because he takes too little credit for his many achievements and assumes too much responsibility for his few failures. the therapist's interpretation reflects a ____ perspective

social-cognitive

research suggests that women are more vulnerable to depression than men because women are more likely to respond to negative life events with self-focused rumination. this suggestion best illustrates a ___ perspective

social-cognitive

stressful life events like the loss of a job are most likely to increase one's risk of

depression

behavior is classified as disordered when it

has all of these characteristics

psychiatrists and psychologists would be likely to identify agoraphobia (fear of places where escape might be difficult) as a psychological disorder because it is

personally dysfunctional

which of the following is true of the medical model

it views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable

using DSM-IV TR guidelines, two different clinicians are likely to give a specific patient the same diagnosis. This indicates that the DSM-IV_TR is

reliable

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of

social circumstances and psychological factors

disruptive or withdrawn behavior, poor peer relations, and solo play have been noted as early warning sign of

schizophrenia

which of the following has been pinpointed as an early warning sign for the subsequent onset of schizophrenia

poor muscle coordination

when schizophrenia is slow develop, called ____ schizophrenia, recovery is ___

process; unlikely

north americans born during the winter and spring months are at a slightly increased risk for

schizophrenia

people born in ___ during the month of ____ are at increased risk for schizophrenia

australia, september

research regarding depression indicates that

with each new generation, depression is increasing in its prevelence

abnormally low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with

depression

one way for people to break the vicious cycle of depression is to

participate more often in activites they consider pleasant and rewarding

mania is most likely to be characterized by feelings of

elation

which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger towards parents

psychoanalytic

compared with kids of average intelligence, more intelligent children show cortex thickening at a(n) ___ age and ___ noticeable changes in cortex thickening and thinning

later, more

injury to the left ___ lobe damages the convergent thinking required for successful performance on intelligence tests

parietal

which of the following best described the relationship between creativity and intelligence

a certain level of intelligence is necessary but not sufficient creatibity

brain size (adjusted for body size) is ___ correlated with intelligence. the speed of taking in perceptual information is___ correlated with intelligence

positively, positively

studies of infants show that babies who quickly become bored with a picture

score higher on intelligence tests many years later

five-year-old wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4 year old. Wilbur's mental age is

4

five year old benjy has an iq of 120 on the original version of the stanford-binet. his mental age is

6

women scoring in the highest 25 percent on the scottish national intelligence test at age 11 tended to ___ than those who scored in the lowest 25 percent

live longer

according to the james -lange theory we experience emotion ___ we notice our physiological arousal. according ot the cannon-bard theory we experience emotion ___ we become physiologically aroused.

after;at the same time as

hohmann discovered that the ____ individual's spinal cord in jury, the more feelings of anger tended to ____ in intensity following the injury

higher; decrease

who will probably be angrier after getting a parking ticket

dan, who has just completed a tennis match

unlike the low-road brain pathway the high road for emotional responses extended through the

cortex

as a member of the diplomatic corps, alex was given special training in the customs. ;anguage, and religions of the nonindustrialized country where he would be living. howeever, alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts's expressions of emotion as revealed by their

facial expressions

The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of

human genetic similarities

We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are

lying

When Professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor McGuire's perceptual skill best illustrates

emotional intelligence

In 8 to 10 seconds, memory whiz Kim Peek can read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he has little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kim's mental capacities best illustrate

savant syndrom

Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is

someone with savant syndrome

High intelligence scores have been linked with high concentrations of gray matter in certain regions of the frontal lobe. The gray matter refers to the ________ of neurons.

cell bodies

A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of

75

Five-year-old Benjy has an IQ of 120 on the original version of the Stanford-Binet. His mental age is

6

Before about age ________, intelligence tests generally do not predict future scores.

3

Why does the predictive validity of general aptitude tests decrease as the educational experience of the students who take them increases?

there is a relatively restricted range of aptitude test scores among students at higher educational levels

Two years ago Maria was in an automobile accident in which her spinal cord was severed, leaving her paralyzed from her neck down. Today, Maria finds that she experiences emotions less intensely than she did before her accident. This tends to support which

james lange theory

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the experience of an emotion

occurs simultaneously with physiological arousal

accourding to the 2 factor theory the two basic components of emotions are __ and ___

a cognitive label; physical arousal

I am an emotionally literate person who is very accurate at reading others' nonverbal behavior, detecting lies, and describing my feelings. Who am I?

a woman

Researchers attempt to understand emotions using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis. The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

cognitive labeling

Patients reportedly feel less depressed following between-the-eyebrows Botox injections that immobilize their frown muscles. This best illustrates

the facial feedback effect

Although Nicole scored well above average on an academic aptitude test, she frequently loses her temper and needlessly antagonizes even her best friends. Her behavior best illustrates a low level of

emotional intelligence

Don's intelligence scores were only average, but he has been enormously successful as a corporate manager. Psychologists Sternberg and Wagner would probably suggest that

don's practival intelligence exceeds his academic intelligence

Melvin has been diagnosed as having savant syndrome, which means that he

is limited in mental ability but has one exceptional ability

Twenty-five-year-old Alexandra is limited in mental ability and can neither read nor write. However, after hearing lengthy, unfamiliar, and complex musical selections just once, she can reproduce them precisely on the piano. It is likely that Alexandra is

someone with 100% savant syndrome

The percentage of people diagnosed with intellectual disabilities has ________ over the past 80 years because intelligence tests have been ________.

increased; restandardized

6. Mr. and Mrs. Linkletter are parents of an intellectually disabled child. It is MOST likely that their child

will have difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent adult life

Sorting children into "gifted child" education programs is most likely to be criticized for

widening the achievement gap between higher and lower ability groups

A 12-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have an IQ of

75

Emotional disgust is to emotional delight as ________ is to ________.

right prefrontal cortex activiation; left prefrontal cortex activiation

As people experience negative emotions

the right prefrontal cortex becomes more elctrically active

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

Astrid was emotionally aroused by a TV horror movie. She became extremely angry when her younger brother momentarily blocked her view of the screen. When her movie viewing was interrupted by a phone call from her boyfriend, however, she experienced unusual

two factor theory

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.

tones of voice

With regard to emotions, Darwin believed that

the expression of emotions helped our ancestors to survive. ,human facial expressions of emotion retain elements of animals' emotional displays.,all humans express basic emotions using similar facial expressions.

If a gender-neutral face is made to look angry, most people perceive it as ________. If asked to imagine an angry face, most identify it as ________.

male;male

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