### convenience sampling

items are selected based only on the fact that they are easy, inexpensive, or convenient to sample

### Simple random sample and Systematic sample

1. Simple to use

2. May not be a good representation of the population's underlying characteristics

### Cluster sample

1. More cost effective

2. Less efficient (need larger sample to acquire the same level of precision)

### Coverage error or selection bias

Exists if some groups are excluded from the frame and have no chance of being selected

### Measurement error

Due to weaknesses in question design, respondent error, and interviewer's effects on the respondent

### sampling distribution

is a distribution of all of the possible values of a sample statistic for a given size sample selected from a population

### As the sample size gets large enough...(Central Limit Theorem)

the sampling distribution becomes almost normal regardless of shape of population

### True or False: Sampling error becomes an ethical issue if the findings are purposely presented without reference to sample size and margin of error so that the sponsor can promote a viewpoint that might otherwise be truly insignificant.

True

### For sample size 16, the sampling distribution of the mean will be approximately normally distributed

if the shape of the population is symmetrical.

### True or False: A sample is selected by including everybody who sits in the first row of a business statistics class. This is an example of a cluster sample.

true

### For sample size 1, the sampling distribution of the mean will be normally distributed

only if the population is normally distributed.

### types of samples can you use if you want to make valid statistical inferences from a sample to a population?

A probability sample

### True or False: The question "How many times have you abused your spouse in the last 6 months?" will most likely result in nonresponse error.

True

### True or False: As a population becomes large, it is usually better to obtain statistical information from the entire population.

False

### True or False: The question: "How much did you make last year rounded to the nearest hundreds of dollars?" will most likely result in measurement error.

True

### True or False: The only way one can eliminate sampling error is to take the whole population as the sample.

True