-Implies a spreading out of people or a group of people who live outside of a homeland and yet have a clear ethnic, cultural, or other link to a shared homeland.
-In old days, usually a solo instrumentalist or ad hoc group playing fiddle, pipes, or tinwhistle accompanying dancing
-Informal social gathering (usually at pub or dance hall) where instrumentalists play together in accompaniment of dancing.
-Gatherings like these function not only as music-making events, but enforce friendships and community.
-Informal gathering where musicians playing get together to play Irish tunes amidst socializing, not typically to accompany dancing. (International phenomenon nowadays; by far the most common of the three contexts listed)
-The SET OF TUNES in a performance, when 2 or more tunes, typically 3 are often strung together.
-Most popular dance rhythm in tune melodies
-Irish dance rhythm in tune melodies
-Duple meter (Triplet subdivision)
-Form: AA BB AA BB A
-A flat-backed hybrid of the original Greek bouzouki and the mandolin.
- It came into Irish music through Johnny Moynihan in the late 1960s.
-A frame drum
-A former kitchen utensil
-Used for rhythmic accompaniment in neo-traditional music
-All-Ireland music competitions
-Very influential singing style
-Songs sung in Irish Gaelic
-Specialist consider it the heart of Irish traditional music
NOT and Irish dance rhythm...?
Irish dance rhythms...?
Aerophones commonly used in Irish Music...?
Aerophone NOT commonly used in Irish music?
Rolls, cans, trebles and cuts are all kinds of...?
The island of Ireland is divided between...?
-An independent republic and a northern province of the United Kingdom.
-A predominately Catholic republic and a predominately Protestant northern province.
The main impetus for the spread of Irish diaspora was...?
-The potato famine
A factor that contributed to the Irish music revival of the 1960s was...?
-Fears of culture loss
-Shift from agriculture to manufacturing economy
The most common context for traditional Irish dance tunes and medleys today is...?
-The music session
At Irish rural social gatherings prior to 1920, what was the significance of music and dance?
-Music and dance were integral to one another
The most common form found in instrumental dance tunes is...?
The Characteristics that define "Celtic music" are...?
-Certain types of Instruments
-Certain types of melodic ornamentation
-Standard forms for songs and dance tunes
On the Uillean pipes the main melody is played on the...?
What are the regulators on the uilleann pipes used for?
-One of the greatest uilleann pipers
-Very important figure in the preservation, agriculture, and broadcasting of Irish traditional music.
-Was performing on Radio Éireann broadcasts by the age of 21.
-He worked for several organizations: the Irish Folklore Commission, Radio Éireann, and the British Broadcasting Corporation.
One of the most important early figures in the preservation, cultivation and dissemination of Irish traditional music was...?
A pan-Irish approach to music was primarily the result of...?
-Urbanization bringing musicians together
-Led by the uilleann piper Paddy Moloney
-Arguably the most influential of modern Irish traditional music groups.
-Their influences are heard in the music of virtually all subsequent leading Irish groups, and they have collaborated with musicians such as Mick Jagger and Ziggy Marley.
The Irish group that has become international "musical ambassadors" of Irish music and has had the greatest influence on neo-traditional musicians is?
As a result of the Irish music revival of the 1960s, traditional music...?
-Was performed by professional touring groups
-Moved from the home to the concert hall
What was not a characteristic of the post-1970s, modern ensemble style?
-"Shaky" irregularities in rhythm
The music of the group Altan can be distinguished from the more traditional music of Seamus Ennis because Altan's music is?
-Is more controlled and planned out
The music of Eileen Ivers represents
-A broad and electric range of musical styles
Republic of Ireland v.s. Northern Ireland?
-Northern Ireland is part of the UK and largely Protestant. The rest is the Republic of Ireland and mostly Catholic.
-In modern times, until 1922 the Republic and Northern Ireland were both part of the United Kingdom.
-In 1922, after a rebellion, the mainly Catholic southern counties separated off to become the independent Republic. The partly Protestant Northern Ireland remained (and remain) part of the UK.
-The Republic did not have The Troubles that have plagued Northern Ireland.
-Since the 1960s the religious and political conflict, of British dominion and the Irish quest for home rule.
-Long history of struggle, often violent, between Protestant majority, Catholic minority. Especially bad during 1970s-80s
Good Friday Agreement of 1998 a.k.a Belfast Agreement
Major breakthrough in the Northern Ireland peace process. Underlines the legitimacy of seeking a United Ireland, most importantly protects the principle of consent, clearly stating "that it is for the people of Ireland alone, by agreement between the two parts respectively and without external impediment, to exercise their right of self-determination on the basis of consent, freely and concurrently given, North and South, to bring about a United Ireland, accepting that this right must be achieved and exercised with and subject to the agreement and consent of a majority of the people of Northern Ireland".
Northern Ireland Conflicts
-Nationalist vs. Unionists
-The Troubles (conflicts)
-Nationalist are predominately Catholic
-Unionist are predominately Protestant
The Republic of Ireland
Dominant Religion- Catholicism
Languages- English and Irish (Irish Gaelic)
Irish Free State until Independence in 1949
-A province of the United Kingdom
-It has a history of struggle between the Irish Protestant majority and the Irish Catholic minority.
Irish Potato Famine (1842-1845)
-began in the 1840s and led to the deaths of 1.5 million Irish people. It was also the main push for the Irish diaspora, in which millions of people left Ireland to settle in other places.
-Foreshadowed both Irish nationalism and Irish diaspora
-Well-intentioned policies led to economic devastation of inner cities (ref. Angela's Ashes)
Govt. initiatives at cultural preservation in face of modernization, urbanization...?
-Poetry, song, inst. music—attempts to preserve.
-Radio Éireann (1926) played important role.
-Musicians/folklorists like Seamus Ennis played a major role.
-Irish music became a major national symbol, but declined in popularity nonetheless.
-Full independence for the Republic of Ireland, which was previously a self-governing dominion within the British Commonwealth.
What occured POST 1949?
-Reliance on manufacturing
Irish Music Revival of 1960
- Was a reaction to the fear of culture loss accompanying this urbanization.
-Interactions between Irish music performers worldwide increased, and even had a great impact on the music "back home" in Ireland.
-The session, an informal musical gathering of Irish tunes and socialization, had great influence.
Irish music revival 1970s
-Planxty 1960s performance
"Cuckoo's Hornpipe" (CD ex. 2-16, p. 163-64 GLQS)
Tinwhistle, lilting hornpipe rhythm, AA'BB' tune form (B sections higher range, more ornamented, louder, more short articulations, etc.), varied repetition, ornamentation (rolls, triplets, etc.), spontaneity and "roughness" of performance (shortness of breath towards end, etc.)
5 Categories of Irish Music
-Sean nos (Gaelic)
-Songs sung in English
-Irish Harp Tradition
-Instrumental dance tunes and melodies
"First House in Connaught/Copper Plate Reel"
-Uilleann pipes, Drone pipes, chanter (melody), regulators (chords, rhythmic effects)
-Listening: melody-plus-drone (with occasional regulator chords added); reel rhythm
-AA'BB' form both tunes of medley; "irregularities" (dropped beats, measures; "shaky" rhythms); staccato-ish style characteristic of old way of playing; "car horn" regulators; most elaborate ornamentation in last part (typical in Irish music)
Sean Ó'Riada (1931-1971)
-Principal modernizer of Irish trad music, major influence
-A influential figure in Irish music transformation.
- In 1960, he formed the ensemble Ceoltóirí Cualann ("Musicians of Cualann").
-These musicians invented a neo-traditional Irish music that was absorbed into the mainstream traditional music scene.
-He restored the status of the uilleann pipes, which had fallen out of favor, and introduced the hand-held frame drum known as the bodhrán as a newly important rhythmic instrument.
-Instruments: pipes (renewed status), button box accordion, bodhrán (new role and status), two fiddles, tinwhistle & sometimes a harpsichord too.
-Offshoot of Ceoltoiri group; Paddy Moloney; first album 1963; influenced all who followed (Planxty, Altan, etc.); play both traditionally and in cross-cultural experimental contexts (from Jagger to Z. Marley, etc.)
How and what became a symbol of national identity?
-Irish nationalism increased in the 1920s, leading to developments like Radio Éireann, the national radio station.
Irish traditional dance tunes and medleys are often performed by?
-Ensembles in contexts such as the CEILI, an informal social dance gathering held at a pub or dance hall, or the much more common SESSION, in which musicians perform traditional and newer tunes in settings not usually featuring dancing.
-Instruments employed include the fiddle, the tinwhistle (an end-blown flute with six fingerholes), and the uilleann pipes (a type of Irish bagpipe—see below).
-Used to embelish (decorate) basic melody, but not necessary
-Add rhythmic interest to it
Types of Ornamentations
Characteristics shared among Celtic musics include:
-Prevalence of melodies in certain modes.
-Identifiable melodic ornamentation.
-Use of certain instruments, forms, and dance rhythms.
-Close integration between music and dance.
Irish MUSICAL and CULTURAL identity has traditionally been framed in terms of?
-A Celtic cultural lineage.
"The Dingle Set"
-Dance tunes: Reels
-Does not include: the Bodhran
-Each of the 3 tunes has: 2 distinct parts or sections (A&B)
-The 2nd tune contrasts w/others bc: texture & instrumentation.
"The Cuckoo's Hornpipe"
-Form: AA BB AA BB A
-Ornaments: roll, cut, triplet
-Eileen Iver's band
-Album: Crossing the Bridge (1999)
Medley of 3 tunes:
-The Noisy Curlew
-Rarely used without ornamentations.
-Ornamentations of melodies is an essential feature to Irish music performance.
Features of the modern ensemble style of Irish dance music:
-Performances typically feature groups of performers rather than soloists.
-Chordal accompaniment from instruments like the guitar and bouzouki, once not used, now figure prominently.
-Drums (e.g., drum set, congas) and other percussion instruments are often used for rhythmic accompaniment.
-She is representative of that transnational culture.
-She is an Irish-American fiddler and her work spans an eclectic range of musical styles: neo-traditional Irish, Irish-rock, Irish-Latin, and Irish-African fusion.
-A type of Irish bagpipe