APHuG Chapter 7

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religion

a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities

secularism

the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife

monotheistic religion

belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe

polytheistic religion

belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe

animistic religion

the belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforst on Earth

universalizing religion

belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope

ethnic religion

religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people

Hinduism

one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan (unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins

caste system

the strict social segregation of people (specifically in India's Hindu society) on the basis of ancestry and occupation

Buddhism

religion founded in the 16th century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge (especially self-knowledge), elimination of greed, craving and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal

Shintoism

religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism (focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship)

Taoism

religion believed to have been founded by Lao-Tsu and based upon his book entitled "Tao-te-ching," or "Book of the Way" (focus on the proper form of political rule oneness of humanity and nature)

Feng Shui

"wind-water": the Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities (positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ["life-breath"] in favorable ways)

Confucianism

a philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture

Judaism

religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur) who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god (according to ______ teaching, Abraham and G-d have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one god, and G-d agrees to protect his chosen people, the ________)

diaspora

("to disperse") forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place (originally denoting the dispersal of the Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade or Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong)

Zionism

the movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land

Christianity

religion based on the teachings of Jesus (according to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of G-d, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to G-d's plan)

Eastern Orthodox Church

one of three major branches of Christianity, the _______ ________ ______, together with the Roman Catholic Church arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey)

Roman Catholic Church

one of the three major branches of Christianity; arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions... centered in Rome

Protestant

one of three major branches of Christianity; following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others challenged many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church

Islam

the youngest of the major world religions, _____ is based on the teachings of Muhammad, born in Mecca in 571 CE (according to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammad spoke the verses of the Qu'ran, the _______ holy book

Sunni

the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist; believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the traditions of Muhammad as authoritative

Shi'ite

the smaller of the two main divisions of Islam; represent the Persian variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali

indigenous religions

belief systems and philosophies practiced and traditionally passed from generation to generation among peoples within an indigenous tribe or group

Shamanism

community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman (a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary; generally local and sometimes regional)

pilgrimage

voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site

sacred sites

place or space people infuse with religious meaning

minarets

tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer

hajj

the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad

interfaith boundaries

boundaries between the world's major faiths

intrafaith boundaries

boundaries within a single major faith

ethnic cleansing

the systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation

activity space

the space within which daily activity occurs

religious fundamentalism

religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy

religious extremism

religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence

shari'a laws

the system of Islamic law, sometimes called Qu'ranic law; unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, ______ is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran

jihad

a doctrine within Islam; commonly translated as "Holy War", Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu'ran

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