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membranes (fluid mosaic)

composed of phospholipids + proteins; contain integrins which attach to cytoskeleton to give membrane a stronger framework

diffusion

process in which particles spread out evenly in available space; from high=> low concentration (diffuse down "concentration gradient" until equilibrium)

passive transport

DIFFUSION across membrane with NO ENERGY investment

concentration gradient

ENERGY for DIFFUSION

osmosis

DIFFUSION OF WATER across membrane

tonicity

ABILITY of solution to cause a cell to GAIN/LOSE water;
depends on concentration of solute inside/outside of cell

isotonic concentration

equal on both sides

hypertonic concentration

concentration is greater outside

hypotonic concentration

concentration is less outside

aquaporins (transport proteins)

use FACILITATED DIFFUSION to help substances across membrane (no energy)

hydrophilic tunnel

binds passenger, changes its shape, and releases passenger on the other side; protein is specific for its substrate

active transport

cells expend ATP against their concentration gradient

moving large molecules

material packaged in vesicle that fuses w/ membrane:
1) exocytosis= EXPORT molecules
2) endocytosis= IMPORT substances

endocytosis

IMPORT substances;
1) PHAGOCYTOSIS= engulf particle by wrapping cell membrane around it and forming vacuole
2) PINOCYTOSIS= same, except fluids are taken into small vesicles
3) RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS= receptors interact with protein, forming a vessicle

energy

CAPACITY to do WORK and CAUSE CHANGE

work

when an object is MOVED against another object

kinetic energy

energy of motion=> transfers motion to other matter

potential energy

energy of object b/c of its location
ex. water behind a dam; chemical energy

chemical reactions

1) EXERGONIC REACTION= RELEASES energy
- ex. cellular respiration
2) ENDERGONIC REACTION= requires INPUT of energy + yields products rich in potential energy
- ex. photosynthesis

metabolism

exergonic + endergonic reactions in living organisms

3 types of work

1) chemical= driving ENDERGONIC reactions
2) transport= pumping SUBSTANCES ACROSS MEMBRANES
3) mechanical= BEATING of CILIA

energy coupling

use of EXERGONIC processes to DRIVE ENDERGONIC processes in order to accomplish work

phosphorylation

hydrolysis of ATP that releases energy by transferring 3rd phosphate from ATP to another molecule

ATP

shuttles CHEMICAL ENERGY and drives CELLULAR WORK; composed of adenine, ribose, 3 phosphate groups; renewable source of energy

energy

energy released in EXERGONIC REACTIONS is used to generate ATP for ENDERGONIC REACTIONS

enzymes

speed up cell's chemical reaction by lowering energy barriers (energy of activation); unique 3-D shape with an ACTIVE SITE where SUBSTRATE binds;
require optimum temperate & optimum pH

cofactors

inorganic enzymes (copper, zinc, iron)

coenzymes

organic enzymes (vitamins)

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