Scientist who found a heritable factor that gets passed on in 1928 (transformation).
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of "external somethings" (DNA) by a cell.
Avery, McCarty, McLeod
Scientists who looked for the transforming agent in 1944 and discovered that DNA is the transforming factor.
Scientists who found additional evidence of DNA's purpose by experimenting with bacteriophages.
Virus that infects bacteria by inserting its DNA.
Made of a protein coat with DNA inside of it.
Labeled phage with radioactive sulfur found in proteins and radioactive phosphorus found in nucleic acids, learning that only the P was passed on to further generations.
Wilkins and Franklin
Scientists who straightened DNA and used X-rays to find evidence for its shape (saw possible twists).
Scientist who concluded that #A = #T and #C = #G and how the bases pair in DNA.
Scientists who used Chargaff's and Franklin's work and created models of DNA as a double helix, competing with Linus Pauling.
The monomer of a nucleic acid that is made up of a ringed 5-carbon sugar, phosphorus, and a nitrogenous (N) base.
Proteins that surround DNA to form chromosomes.
Configurations of nucleic acid that tell the cell how to make proteins.
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
Adenine and guanine.
Cytosine and thymine.
During this process, DNA splits down the middle and each side serves as a template for new copies.
Model proved by Mesellson-Stahl that shows that new complementary nucleotides bind, getting two identical copies, each with one new and one old strand.
Enzyme that unwinds DNA in replication.
origins of replication
Bubbles that form at each end of a DNA strand during replication (replication fork).
RNA primer enzyme that starts replication.
Small pieces of DNA that are made on the lagging strand and that are elongated by DNA polymerase
Enzyme that connects the Okazaki fragments during replication.
The way that replication works (in opposite directions for each strand). DNA is made from the 5' end to the 3' end.
Type of proofreading where the cell checks for errors from replication.
Type of proofreading where the the enzyme nuclease cuts the DNA and the gap is fixed.
End of DNA (they are never copied).
Type of genetic material that is made of ribose, is single stranded, and has uracil instead of thymine.
Three bases of DNA or RNA that are read all at once. Each one codes for an amino acid.
(aka methionine/AUG) Tells the enzymes to start copying DNA.
UAA, UAG, UGA
The process by which RNA is made from DNA in the nucleus. A complementary strand of RNA called mRNA is made of the DNA.
First round of DNA that is trimmed to remove "useless" DNA during transcription.
Coding or expressed DNA.
The process by which mRNA is decoded into polypeptides (proteins).
RNA that has the opposite code of mRNA.
Complementary to the bases in an mRNA codon.
Type of RNA that aids in translation and helps compose ribosomes.
Exit site on a ribosome.
Peptidyl-tRNA binding site on a ribosome.
Aminoacyl-binding site on a ribosome.
Process in translation where 1st tRNA binds with start mRNA codon at the ribosome's P site.
Process in translation where 2nd tRNA binds to the A site, followed by a shift to the E and P sites. The 3rd tRNA comes to the P site, the 1st two amino acids are bonded, and the first tRNA is released.
Process in translation where stop codon is reached, a release factor binds at the A site, and the polypeptide is released.
Process by which imperfect protein is touched up by the Golgi apparatus.
regulation of genes
The cell can turn genes on or off, change the rate of mRNA's creation, deactivate chromosomes (X in females), and alter proteins later.
Change in genetic material.
A mutation where there is one mistake in the DNA, such as sickle cell disease.
Mutation where one nucleotide is replaced.
Chromosomal mutation that occurs when a protein is made, but it is the wrong one.
Chromosomal mutation when no functional protein results.
Adding a base of DNA.
Deleting a base of DNA.
When the whole reading frame of DNA is off by one, two, or three deletions.
Something that causes a mutation, such as UV rays, chemicals, radiation, etc.