Biochemistry: Nucleic Acids

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What is the composition of nucleic acid?

Long chains of monomers called nucleotides

What is the composition of a nucleotide?

Pentose Sugar
Nitrogen Base
Phosphate group

What differentiates between the different nucleotides?

The nitrogen bases are different

What is the difference in sugars in RNA and DNA?

RNA: Ribose
DNA: Deoxyribose (no oxygen on C2)

What is the difference between the nitrogen bases in RNA & DNA?

Both have: Adenine, Guanine and Cytosine
RNA has: Uracil
DNA has: Thymine

What bonds hold DNA together?

Ester bonds between deoxyribose sugar and phosphate group

What bonds hold RNA together?

Phosphodiester bonds between ribose sugar and phosphate group

What gives DNA or RNA its structure?

The sequence of nitrogen bases i.e. RNA: A,C,G,U DNA: A,C,G,T

Can the sequence be in any order?

Yes

What is the secondary structure of DNA?

Exists as a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds

What nitrogen bases link with each other in a DNA double-helix?

A-T & G-C

What is the difference between the link A-T & G-C?

A-T has 2 Hydrogen bonds
G-C has 3 Hydrogen bonds

Does RNA also exist in a double helix?

No single strand, but is still folded via hydrogen bonds

What are the differences in roles between DNA & RNA?

DNA: Stores genetic information
RNA: Transmits information from DNA to synthesise proteins

What are the different types of RNA?

Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA and Ribosomal RNA

What does 2 processes does protein synthesis involve?

Transcription(nucleus): an mRNA copy of a DNA strand is produced and heads for the Ribosomes
Translation(cytoplasm): tRNA molecules bring amino acids to mRNA within ribosome to build a protein.

Is adenosine 5 triphosphate an important molecule?

Yes

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