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Terms and their definitions about certain parts of the human eye (p.33 of physiology notes)

sclera

white outerlayer of connective tissue (eyewhite);
function = protection

cornea

transparent extension of sclera;
function = provides focusing (along with lens), high reflection of light rays inside

choroid

thin pigmented inner layer;
covers entire eyeball, contains blood vessels and pigmented tissue (melanin)

iris

circular and radial fibers with opening in the center (pupil);
nerve III

lens

focusing system; its curvature is controlled by ciliary smooth muscle

superior rectus muscle

the fastest muscle in the body, therefore making the eye the fastest moving organ; nerve III, IV

anterior chamber (anterior cavity)

space between iris and cornea filled with aqueous humor

vitreous body (posterior cavity)

non-circulating, non-absorbing, permanent gelatinous, clear substance

details vitreous body (posterior cavity)

sciliary process in here = secrete aqueous humor --> goes to anterior chamber and exists through the canal of schlemm (completes circulation in 2-3 hours)

retina

layers of specialized nerve cells responsible for image formation; first image formed here; blood supply here

fovea

center of the retinal visual field containing cones only (also called the macula) = seeing color

optic disc

exit point of optic nerve fibers (axons of the ganglion neurons); blind spot with no photoreceptors; entry of retinal arteries and veins

optic nerve (cranial nerve II)

consists of 1 million optic nerve fibers that travel to the brain

accommodation

adjusting of pupil to focus on objects at different distances

circular accommodation

constriction = making pupil smaller

radial accommodation

contraction = dilation of pupil; can increase/decrease by 16-fold

glaucoma

disease of anterior chamber with pressure build up due to problems with secretion, flow, and/or absorption

cataract

cloudiness in lens

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