What are the three main components of the neurological system?
central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The CNS is composed of the ____ and the ____ ____.
brain and spinal cord
What is the brain enclosed in? The spinal cord?
cranial vault. vertebrae
The PNS is composed of ____ nerves and ____ nerves. Both are divided into ____ pathways and ____ pathways.
cranial and spinal. afferent and efferent.
Afferent pathways are ____ pathways which carry ____ impulses ____ the CNS.
ascending, sensory, toward
Efferent pathways are ____ pathways which carry ____ impulses ____ from the CNS.
descending, motor, away
What do efferent pathways innervate?
skeletal muscles or effector organs
The ANS consists of ____ neurons and ____ axons.
What is the ANS responsible for?
monitoring changes in internal environment and bringing about appropriate changes in them
The contraction of both ____ muscle and ____ muscle is controlled by motor neurons of the ANS.
What system is the ANS considered a part of?
What part of the nervous system is responsible for responding to changes in the external environment?
sensory-somatic nervous system
What is considered the fore-brain? (2)
telencephalon and diencephalon
What is considered the hind-brain? (3)
cerebellum, pons and medulla
What is considered the brain stem? (3)
midbrain, pons, medulla
Primary cell of the nervous system
Where are most neurons located?
Neurons in the PNS are found in groupings, called ____ or ____.
ganglia or plexuses
What is the cell body of a neuron called?
In the soma (neuron cell body), ____ occurs as well as ____ production.
What are dendrites?
thin processes that carry nerve impulses TOWARD the cell body
Where are neurotransmitters released?
terminal end of axon
Axons carry nerve impulses ____ from the cell body.
A typical neuron has how many axons?
An axon may be covered with a layer of myelin, which is made out of what?
What is the entire myelin membrane called?
The myelin sheath is interrupted at regular intervals by ____ of ____, where it is possible for axons to then ____.
nodes of Ranvier, branch
What is the fuel source of neurons?
predominantly glucose, but insulin is not required for cellular glucose uptake in the CNS
What cells make myelin in the periphery? In the CNS?
Schwann's Cells. Oligodendrocytes
What is divergence?
the ability of axonal branches to influence a number of different neurons
What is convergence?
branches of a variety of numbers of neurons "converge" on and influence a single neuron
The ____ of a nerve impulse increases when there is myelin.
Myelin speeds impulses by acting as an ____. The ions flow between ____, rather than along the....
insulator, segments, entire length of the membrane
With myelin, the current "____ ____" the myelinated area but only if the gap is every ____-____ mm.
jumps under, 1-3
What is it called when ions flow between segments rather than along the entire length of the membrane?
Neurons are classified structurally on what?
the number of processes (projections) extending from the cell body
What are the four types of neurons based on structure?
unipolar, pseudounipolar, bipolar, multipolar
What does a pseudounipolar neuron look like?
one process that divides and goes into two directions.
Where are pseudounipolar neurons typically found?
typical of sensory neurons in cranial and spinal nerves
What does a bipolar neuron look like?
it has two distinct processes
Where are bipolar neurons found?
connect rod and cone cells of retina
Multipolar neurons are the most common neurons. They have multiple ____ and are capable of much ____.
Neuroglial cells provide ____ support and ____ for neurons in the CNS.
Neuroglial cells are the "____ ____."
What are the four types of neuroglial cells?
oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, ependymal
What is the function of an oligodendrocyte?
produce myelin in the CNS
What is the function of an astrocyte?
form the BBB, wrap around vessels and create a tight junction between neurons and blood vessels. important drug implications.
What is the function of a microglia?
macrophage of the brain, eat up old tissue, foreign substances, debris
What is the function of an ependymal cell?
form lining in the CSF
Do mature nerve cells divide?
What may injury to a nerve cell mean?
permanent loss of function
Degeneration occurs when an axon is severed. The CNS is not efficient at ______.
What is the only part of a nerve cell that can be repaired?
the axon, not the cell body
What can make it more likely that an axon will be regenerated?
the more peripheral the injury, the easier it is to repair
What cells are thought to cause scarring in the brain that prevents healing?
What part of the nervous system CAN be efficient in regeneration? What is this limited to though?
PNS. limited to myelinated post-synaptic fibers
Following nerve injury, the ______ portion of cut
axons ______. This is done by what type of regeneration?
distal, regenerate, Wallerian
Following a nerve injury, what happens to Schwann cells that had previously myelinated the axon?
they de-differentiate and begin to proliferate.
How many days post-injury do new terminal sprouts project from the proximal segment?
Aside from proliferating, what other role do Schwann cells play post-nerve injury?
they also produce factors that promote re-growth of axon
Factors that promote re-growth of an axon can be found in the ______ ______. What two in particular?
extracellular matrix. laminins and fibronectins
What four factors play a large role in whether an injured nerve will regenerate?
location of the injury, type of injury, inflammatory response, process of scarring
How does the location of a nerve injury affect whether or not it will regenerate?
the closer to the cell body of the nerve, the greater the likelihood that the never will not regenerate.
Nerve injury regeneration: ______ injuries are more likely for recovery than a ______ injury. Why?
crushing, cutting. cut nerves cause scarring which blocks or slows regeneration.
How does the inflammatory response affect regeneration of injured nerves?
must work well (cannot be too much or too little)
What is a synapse?
the space between adjacent neurons
Impulses transmitted across synapses are either done so by ______ or ______ conduction.
chemical or electrical
What are chemical conductors transmitted across synapses called?
How many directions can neurotransmitters be
What are the two categories of nerves based on the direction of nerve impulses?
presynaptic neurons (relay the nerve impulse TOWARD the synapse) and postsynaptic neurons (relay nerve impulses AWAY from synapse)
Order of transmission: ______-->______ neuron-->SYNAPSE-->______ neuron-->______
axon, presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron, dendrite
What are some common neurotransmitters?
norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine, GABA, serotonin
There are more than ______ neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters are stored on one side of the ______ cleft. The ______ site is stored on the other.
What happens when a neurotransmitter binds at a receptor site?
it changes the permeability of the postsynaptic neuron. it changes the neuron's membrane potential.
When a neurotransmitter binds with receptor sites of a postsynaptic neuron, one of two things may happen: the postsynaptic neuron may be ______ (______), or ______ (______).
excited (depolarized), inhibited (hyperpolarized)
What neurotransmitter is one of the best inhibitors in the body?
gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Each neuron is connected with numerous other neuron, receiving...
numerous impulses from them
What is summation? Where does it take place?
the adding together of impulses at the axon hillock
What is happens re:summation if the neuron gets only excitatory impulses? What about if it gets as many inhibitory as excitatory?
If it gets only excitatory then it was also generate an action potential. if gets as many excitatory as it does inhibitory then they will cancel each other out the nerve impulse will stop there.
What is temporal summation?
the effects of successive, rapid impulses received from one neuron at the same synapse.
In temporal summation, there is a ______ relationship.
How are the potentials in temporal summation classified?
depending on whether they bring the post-synaptic neuron closer to, or further away from, the threshold required to produce an action potential
What are the two classifications of potentials in temporal summation?
excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory post synaptic potentials (IPSPs)
What happens in spatial summation?
two or more separate inputs arrive almost simultaneously from different pre-synaptic neurons. the individual PSPs add together (bombardment)
What are 4 different protective structures in the CNS?
cranium, meninges, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), vertebral column
What is the forebrain also called?
What are the components of the forebrain?
two cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum), limbic system, basal ganglia
The cerebrum is the ______, most highly ______ part of the human brain.
What is the difference between white and grey matter?
grey matter is cell bodies of neurons. white matter is myelinated nerve fibers.
What occurs in the prefrontal area of the forebrain? (3)
goal oriented behavior (concentration), short term/recall memory, inhibition of limbic areas of the CNS
The premotor area is also called ______ ______.
In the premotor area of the forebrain there is ______ of motor movements and control of ______ ______ ______ that control eye movements.
programming, frontal eye fields
The primary motor area of the forebrain is responsible for what?
specific muscle movement
What structure containing CSF is found in the forebrain?
What is the corpus callosum?
white matter that connects the 2 hemispheres and allows communication between them
The limbic system involves structures around the ______ ______. It is responsible for mediating ______ through a connection in the ______ ______.
corpus callosum. emotion. prefrontal cortex.
Aside from mediating emotions, the limbic system is also involved in ______ behavioral responses, ______ reaction to emotion, ______ behaviors, ______ rhythms and ______.
primitive, visceral, feeding, biologic, smell
The basal ganglia involve cerebral nuclei referred to as the ______ ______ and ______. They are referred to as the ______ system and they transverse...
corpus striatum, amygdala, extrapyramidal, through other parts of the brain
What are the basal ganglia responsible for? What are two diseases in which this area of the brain is involved?
fine tuning motor movements. Parkinson disease and Huntington's chorea
What is an example of a time when we are using our basal ganglia?
when we practice an activity (e.g. sports)
What are the two areas of the brain involved in the sensory and motor aspect of speech?
Wernicke's and Broca's
Wernicke area is the ______ speech area. Broca area is the ______ speech area.
Wernicke area is responsible for the ______ and ______ of speech. Dysfunction in this area results in ______ aphasia, or ______.
reception, interpretation, receptive, dysphasia
Someone with ______ aphasia will not be able to understand or interpret what is being said to them.
What happens in Broca's aphasia? What is this dysfunction also called?
person knows what they want to say but can't speak it. expressive aphasia
What does the diencephalon include? (4)
epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus
The epithalamus includes the ______ ventricle and is closely associated with the ______ system.
The thalamus is responsible for relaying ______, ______ ______, and ______ signals to the cerebral cortex.
sensation, spatial sense, motor signals
In addition to being a relay station to the cerebral cortex, the thalamus is also involved in the regulation of ______, ______ and ______.
consciousness, sleep and alertness
Sensations are received by the thalamus but require ______ process for interpretation.
The thalamus is also a relay center from the ______ ______ and ______to the "right" motor area.
basal ganglia, cerebellum
The hypothalamus is known as the ______ gland.
The hypothalamus performs ______ functions, most of which relate directly or indirectly to the regulation of ______ activities by way of other ______ regions and the ______ system.
vital, visceral, brain, autonomic
What other two glands does the hypothalamus interact with?
posterior portion of the pituitary gland and the pineal gland
What is the pineal gland responsible for synthesizing?
The hypothalamus is responsible for ______ regulation, ______ and ______ nervous system activity.
temperature, wakefulness, autonomic
What is the midbrain also called?
What are the three main structures of the midbrain?
corpora quadrigemina, tegmentum, and the basis pedunculi
What are the basis pedunculi referred to together as?
The midbrain is involved in ______ and ______ visual motor movements (the ability to track an object across the visual field) and the positioning of the ______ to improve hearing.
voluntary and involuntary, head
Will dopamine IV cross the BBB?
The substantia nigra is part of the ______ ______. It synthesizes ______.
basal ganglia, dopamine
Dopamine is a ______ that is a precursor of ______. Its dysfunction is associated with ______ disease. What is its role in the brain (different from peripheral role)?
neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Parkinson, helps us to fine tune movements.
Also in the midbrain are the nuclei of cranial nerves ______ and ______.
III and IV
The ______ ______ is located in the midbrain and and carries CSF. Blocking of this aqueduct can cause ______. What is it also called?
cerebral aqueduct. hydrocephalus. aqueduct of Sylvius.
What is the hindbrain also called?
metencephalon and myelencephalon
The metencephalon includes the ______ and the ______ (bridge).
The cerebellum is involved in the ______, ______ fine-tuning of motor control. It is involved in ______ and ______. There are ______ hemispheres. It is involved with ______ movements and control of muscle ______.
reflex, involuntary, balance and posture. two. fine, tone.
The cerebellum is involved in the overall coordination of ______ activity in response to ______ input and descending "traffic" from higher centers.
What part of the brain does alcohol affect?
The pons is responsible for transmitting information from the ______ to the ______ ______ as well as transmitting information between the two ______ ______. Cranial nerves ______ through ______ are also located here.
cerebellum, brain stem. cerebellar hemispheres. V-VIII
The myelencephalon is composed of the ______ ______.
The medulla oblongata is the ______ portion of the brain stem. It is responsible for reflex activities, such as...
lowest. heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, vomiting
The nuclei of cranial nerves ______ through ______ are located in the myelencephalon.
IX through XII
The major portion of descending ______ pathways cross to the other side at the medulla.
The ______, ______ and ______ together make up the brain stem.
midbrain, medulla, pons
The brain stem connects the ______ of the brain, the ______ and the ______ ______.
hemispheres, cerebellum, spinal cord
In the brain stem, there is the reticular formation, which is a large network of connected tissue. What is it also known as?
reticular activation system (RAS)
The RAS controls ______, ______ and the ability to consciously ______ ______. It acts as a ______ by dampening the effect of repeated stimuli. It also helps our ______ from becoming overloaded.
sleep, wakefulness, focus attention. filter. senses.
The spinal cord is divided by ______ sections. With a cross section, it has a ______-shaped inner core.
The gray matter of the spinal cord is nerve cell bodies. The white matter is ______ and ______ pathways called spinal ______. These are named by their ______ and ______ points.
ascending and descending, tracts, beginning and ending
What are three ascending tracts of the spinal column?
dorsal white column (fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus), lateral spinothalamic tract, anterior spinothalamic tract
What are three descending tracts of the spinal column?
lateral corticospinal tract, medial reticulospinal tract, vestibulospinal tract
What are the five spinal cord divisions and how many vertebrae are in each?
cervical (8), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral (5), coccygeal (1)
The spinal cord has a central mass of ______ matter with a peripheral array of ______ matter (funiculi). It consists of ______ and ______ tracts.
gray, white, ascending and descending
What are the two divisions within the spinal cord?
somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
The somatic nervous system has pathways that regulate ______ control of ______ muscle.
The ANS regulates the body's ______ through ______ control of organ systems. What are the two components of it?
viscera, involuntary, sympathetic, parasympathetic
What are reflex arcs?
a set of motor responses that occur when neural circuits in the spinal cord are activated
Reflex arcs are used to respond to ______. There is protective circuitry for ______ output.
What are the structures needed for a reflex arc?
receptor, afferent (sensory neuron), efferent (motor) neuron, an affector muscle or gland
Do you need brain function for a reflex arc to occur?
What is a neuromuscular junction also called?
Contraction of muscles is triggered by ______ ions and ______. During contraction the length of the ______ changes.
calcium, coupling, sarcomere
During relaxation of muscles, the action potential on the muscle fiber ceases due to destruction of ______ at the ______ junction by ______.
acetylcholine, myoneural, acetycholinesterase
The corticospinal spinal tract is made up of ______ fibers which connect the ______ ______ and the ______. It is important for ______ and ______ movements, as well as ______ and ______ movements.
efferent, spinal cord, brain, hand and finger, foot and toe
Which side of the spinal cord does the corticospinal tract run down?
Damage of the corticospinal tract results in a ______ reflex. Does this occur on both sides?
A positive Babinski reflex is the toes....
pointing up rather than curling when the bottom of the foot is stroked
When can a Babinski reflex be normal?
when the person is 2 years of age or younger
What are three motor pathways?
corticobulbar, reticulospinal, vestibulospinal
The corticobulbar tract is essentially the same as the ______ tract but consists of a ______-neuron chain. It is involved in both lower ______ neurons and is involved in precise motor movements in the ______ and ______.
corticospinal, two, motor, face and neck
The reticulospinal tract modulates motor movement by ______ and ______ spinal activity. It keeps us ______.
inhibiting, exciting. upright
The vestibulospinal tract causes ______ muscles to rapidly contract which ______ the body and is essential for ______.
extensor, stabilizes, balance
The vestibulospinal tract is involved when a person starts to...
The vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR) keep the body ______ and prevent ______ when the body is ______ knocked off balance.
upright, falls, unexpectedly
When is an example of when VSRs are seen?
in extreme leg and arm positions of a speed skater rounding a turn
How do the vestibular nuclei get information about any tilting movement?
when a person is standing upright, the gravity sensors of the inner ear constantly monitor the position of the head and body and send any info to the vestibular nuclei
Once the vestibular nuclei sense that a person is falling, what happens next?
this info is relayed down the spinal cord to the areas controlling limb muscles
How do VSR allow a person to resist falls?
it will usually tend to relax groups of muscles on one side of the body and contract similar groups on the other
Where does the reticulospinal tract originate?
in the reticular formation of the pons and medulla oblongata and then descends to the spinal cord
The reticulospinal tract mediates ______ adjustments and ______ movements. It helps the body to maintain ______.
postural, head, balance
Small movements of the body are detected by ______ neurons. ______ commands to counteract these movements are sent through the ______ tracts to appropriate muscle groups throughout the body. It is seen dramatically when a person stops themselves from falling ______.
sensory, vestibulospinal, backwards
The reticulospinal tract is important for the coordination of ______ and ______ movements.
head and eye
Pyramidal pathways consist of the ______ and some ______ tracts. They directly innervate ______ neurons of the spinal cord or brainstem, or certain ______ ______ nuclei. They are ______.
corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts. motor, cranial nerve. voluntary
Why is the extrapyramidal system EXTRApyramidal?
to differentiate it fro the tracts of the motor cortex that travel through the pyramids of the medulla
The extrapyramidal system modulates and regulates anterior/______ ______ cells.
ventral horn cells
Sensory pathways are afferent or efferent?
Sensory pathways (afferent) are composed of the ______ (dorsal) column, and the anterior and lateral ______ tracts.
The posterior column of the spinal cord transmits fine ______, ______ and ______ signals to the brain. This is called "______" information.
touch, vibration, proprioception, epicritic
Epicritic information is ______ and well-______.
Together, the anterior and lateral spinothalamic tracts carry vague ______, ______ and ______ information to the brain.
touch, pain and temperature
Of the anterior and lateral spinothalamic tracts, alpha delta fibers conduct ______, ______ pain and C fibers conduct ______, ______ pain.
immediate, sharp. dull, burning
The lateral and anterior spinothalamic tracts together carry protopathic information. What is this?
primitive and undiscriminating
Mnemonic for remembering names of the cranial nerves
Oh, oh, oh! To touch and feel very good velvet at home. (Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal)
Mnemonic for remembering cranial nerve function (sensory, motor, mixed)
Some say marry money but my brothers say big brains matter more. (Olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal)
The meninges of the brain consist of the ______, ______ and ______ maters.
dura, arachnoid, pia
The outer layer of the dura mater forms the ______ of the skull. The inner dura forms rigid ______ that support and separate brain structures.
What is the falx cerebri?
a part of the inner dura that dips between the 2 hemispheres and is anchored at the ethmoid bone
The ______ ______ is a membrane that separates cerebellum from cerebral structures.
The arachnoid mater is ______ and ______-like. It follows the contours of the ______ structures.
spongy, web. cerebral
The pia mater provides support for ______ ______ serving brain tissue.
The subdural space is between the ______ and ______ mater. There are many small bridging ______ with little support. Injury/disruption results in ______ ______.
dura and arachnoid. veins. subdural hematoma.
The subarachnoid space is between ______ and ______ mater. It contains ______.
arachnoid and pia. CSF
The choroid plexus is very ______. It arises from the ______ membrane and adheres to the contours of the brain and spinal cord. It produces ______.
delicate. pial. CSF.
The epidural space lies between the ______ ______ and the ______. It extends down the spinal column and is the ______ part of the spinal canal.
dura mater, skull. outermost
What four things does the epidural space contain?
lymphatics, spinal nerve roots, loose fatty tissue, small arteries
The epidural space also contains a large network of ______-walled blood vessels called the...
thin, epidural venous plexus
The role of CSF and the ventricle system is the protect ______ structures. It is clear and ______.
What is the function of CSF in the brain?
to protect meninges, nerve roots and blood vessels from the bulk/tug of the brain, keeps it in suspension
How much CSF is there circulating in the ventricles and subarachnoid space at any given time?
CSF is made from ______. Eventually it circulates throughout the CNS and returns to the ______. ______ mL are produced daily.
blood, blood, 600
CSF exerts pressure within the brain and spinal cord. What is the normal pressure?
5-14 mm Hg
What is the nucleus pulposas? What is it made up of? What is its function?
the intervertebral disk. pulpy mass of elastic fiber. a shock absorber--protects against vertebral damage.
What is a common source of back problems?
nucleus pulposas: rupture, protrusion, compression of spinal cord or nerve root
How much of the cardiac output does the brain receive? What other organ is this the same as?
20%. same as the kidneys.
What are the two main arteries that supply blood to the brain?
internal carotid, vertebral
What efficiently supplies blood to the brain? It is a looping pattern that provides for a complex system of ______.
Circle of Willis. redundancy.
What does the BBB do?
selectively inhibits some potential harmful substances in the blood from entering the interstitial spaces of the brain or CSF
The BBB is characterized by a ______ ______ between ______ cells of brain cell capillaries.
tight junction, endothelial
What cells of the brain are involved in the BBB?
What are the three major purposes of the BBB?
1. protects brain from "foreign substances" in the blood that may potentially cause brain injury. 2. protects the brain from hormones and neurotransmitters produced endogenously. 3. maintains a constant homeostatic environment for the brain.
What things can disrupt the BBB?
trauma, ischemia, inflammation, pressure, injury to the brain can open the BBB, BBB that is not fully formed at birth
What things can open the BBB?
hypertension, hyperosomolity, microwaves exposure, radiation exposure
Where does the blood supply to the spinal cord come from?
off vertebral arteries and from branches from several regions of the aorta
Blood supply to spinal cord: off vertebral arteries, from ______ of cranium: ______ ______ artery and paired ______ ______ arteries.
base, anterior spinal, posterior spinal
The venous drainage of the spinal cord ______ the arterial supply. Where does it drain into?
parallels. drains into venous sinuses between dura and periosteum of vertebrae.
What are the two components of the peripheral nervous system?
cranial nerves and the spinal nerves (plus their branches and ganglia)
Cranial and spinal nerves are composed of individual ______ wrapped in a ______ sheath.
Spinal nerves contain both ______ and ______ neurons; these are called "______ ______."
sensory, motor, mixed nerves
What are plexuses?
networks of nerve fibers
What do the main spinal nerve plexuses innervate? (2)
skin , underlying muscles of limbs
How are the main spinal nerve plexuses named?
according to the vertebral level they exit
An area of skin may be supplied by how many spinal nerves?
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
31 (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccyx)
Each of the spinal nerves relay ______ (including ______) from a particular region of skin to the brain.
What is a dermatome?
an area of skin supplied mainly by a single cranial nerve
Viruses, such as ______ ______, originate in a ______ ______ ______, migrate along the spinal nerve to affect the area of skin sensed by that nerve.
herpes zoster, dorsal root ganglion
The ANS consists of ______ neurons and ______ axons.
The ANS consists of bundles that run between the CNS, especially the ______ and ______ ______.
hypothalmus, medulla oblongata
The ANS reaches all parts of the body, both ______ and ______.
visceral and somatic
What parts of the body is the ANS particularly active in?
heart, lungs, viscera, glands (both exocrine and endocrine)
What is the role of the ANS?
responsible for monitoring conditions in the internal environment and bringing about appropriate changes in them
The contraction of both ______ muscle and ______ muscle is controlled by motor neurons of the ANS.
The ANS is a ______-neuron pathway.
ANS: sensory signals from ______ and ______ send signals to the autonomic neurons in the brain and spinal cord. A ______ neuron cell body is located within the CNS (______ ______ or ______ ______). Preganglionic fibers (______ fibers) synapse with a ganglionic neuron located in the ______. A ______ fiber terminates on the ______ organ (heart, stomach, etc).
viscera and skin, preganglionic, brain stem or spinal cord, efferent, PNS, postganglionic, effector
What larger system is the ANS part of?
Are we aware of workings of the ANS in most situations? Is this system voluntary?
no. no--involuntary and reflexive (e.g we do not notice when blood vessels change size but we may feel our hearts beat faster)
We can train ourselves to have some control over some functions of the ANS such as ______ ______ and ______.
heart rate, BP
What are the two main branches of the ANS?
Neurotransmitters may be classified as ______ or ______.
cholinergic or adrenergic
In what instances in the nervous system is acetylcholine used a neurotransmitter?
ALL PREganglionic fibers release Ach (both parasympathetic and sympathetic). parasympathetic POSTganglionic fibers also release Ach.
______ receptors bind with Ach.
Adrenergic fibers release what neurotransmitter?
When is norepinephrine released as a neurotransmitter?
sympathetic POSTganglionic fibers release NE EXCEPT those that innervate sweat glands and some blood vessels in the skin and skeletal muscles)
Alpha 1 receptors produce ______ or ______. Stimulation of of alpha 1 is the primary response caused by ______. This neurotransmitter will cause ______ when it stimulates alpha 1.
excitation or stimulation. norepinephrine. vasoconstriction.
Alpha 2 receptors cause ______ or ______. Most alpha receptors on effector organs are alpha 1 or 2?
relaxation or inhibition. alpha 1
What should come to mind with beta 1 receptors? What about beta 2?
cardiac stimulation. bronchodilation.
Beta 1 receptors cause increased ______ ______ and ______, in addition to release of ______ from the kidneys.
heart rate, contractility, renin
Beta 2 receptors cause ______, in addition to stimulating the ______ ______ and ______ of the heart muscle.
bronchodilation, heart rate and contractility
Stimulation of beta 2 receptors: dilates ______ artery and ______ to mucles, stimulates ______-______ pressure, causes ______ synthesis in the liver and ______ production.
hepatic, circulation, eye-intraocular, glucose, insulin
Catecholamines are released in circulation during times of ______ or ______ stress.
physical or emotional
What is a naturally occuring catecholamine in the SNS?
Dopamine effects: increased ______ ______, ______ and ______ ______. Increased ______. Dilates blood vessels in the ______, ______, ______ and ______.
heart rate, contractility, cardiac output. BP. brain, heart, kidneys, mesentery
Dopamine cannot cross the ______, therefore it cannot be given as a ______ drug.
What is given to patients who need increased dopamine (e.g. Parkinson's disease)?
a dopamine precursor (e.g. L-dopa)
Dopamine is available ______ for use in critical care areas.
Adrenergic catecholamines are also called sympathomimetics. Why?
because they mimic the sympathetic nervous system
Where are epinephrine and norepinephrine produced? Where are they released from?
adrenal medulla, adrenal glands
Norepinephrine used to be called ______ and epinephrine used to be called ______.
Norepinephrine: raises ______ ______, increases ______ ______, causes ______ to be released and increases blood flow to the ______.
heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, muscles
Epinephrine raises ______ ______, constricts ______ ______ dilates ______ and suppresses the ______ system.
heart rate, blood vessels, pupils, immune
The parasympathetic NS originates from cell bodies in the...
spinal cord, in the sacral region
What cranial nerves in the medulla oblongata form the preganglionic fibers of the PSNS? (4)
III, VII, IX, X
Preganglionic fibers of the PSNS from the medulla or spinal cord project to ganglia located where?
CLOSE to the target organ