|Muhammad|| Who: the founder of Islam|
When: 600 A.D.
Significance: Out of his prophesies and revelations from Allah came the Qur'an. These guidelines formed the religion of Islam.
|Charlemagne|| Who: Christian emperor of the Franks|
Where: from Germanic people, crowned in Rome
When: 800 A.D.
Significance: crowned Emperor on Christmas day by the pope, he strived to build the Holy Roman Empire. He forced people to be baptized and established a Christian empire. Unified church and state
|Thomas Aquinas|| What: the most influential medieval theologian|
When: 1200's A.D.
Significance: Christianizes Aristotle: "faith perfects reason." Through our general observations of our surroundings we can learn about the character of God. Starts with scripture and backs it up with reasoning.
|Averroes||Muslim philosopher. We can both persue knowledge and live according to the Quran. He quotes the Quran showing us where it tells us to persue knowledge. Gaining knowledge will give us a better understanding of the Quran. Reason gets backed up by scripture.|
|Francis of Assisi|| Midevil monk|
When: 12thc to 13thc
example of the changing veiw of nature. he believed that you can find God in nature and there is beauty there. Advocate for the poor
|Hildegard of Bingen||Story simbolizing that you have to go through the church to get your salvation.|
|Sacraments|| What: a visible sign of invisible grace|
Where: the Catholic church
When: Middle Ages
Significance: a means of receiving grace in the middle age Catholic Church which included: baptism, conformation, penance, Eucharist, marriage, ordination, last rights.
|Black Death|| What: plague that spread through Europe|
When: 1347 - 1351
Significance: It killed 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population as it left huge swellings on people that spread through any article that an afflicted person had touched.
|Great Schism||What: Crisis in the late Medieval church when there were first two, then three popes|
Where: Medieval Europe
Significance: ended by the Council of Constance. It damaged the faith of Christian believers and the view of the authority of the Church. Both popes denounced the other as an anti-Christ, creating a mixed view of who the pope was and who he was supposed to be. Division in Church. Brings nationalism to the forefront over Christian values
|Hundred Years War||between the english and the french. the french won. 1337 to 1453|
|Ad Fontes||Back to the sources|
|Erasmus||Who: most important Christian humanist of the Renasance. |
When: 15th c to 16th c
Significants: contemporary of luther. Grace is a huge thing but Free will matters too. A balance between grace and free will. Believed Reform was necessary for the catholic church but he wasn't going to do it.
|Gutenerg Printing Press|| What: block type printing|
Sig: spread 95 theses. bible
What: created the printing press
When: 1445 - 1450
Significance: allowed printing to become easier and more books to be printed. The Bible was the first printed book with movable type, completed in 1456.
|Renaissance Humanism||The shift from the midevil view of humans to the renaissance view of humans|
|95 Theses||What: Luther's writing of the wrong-doings of the church|
When: 1517 A.D.
Where: Wittenburg - Germany
Significance: Nailed to the Church door, originally intended to be a dialogue with church leaders, it was copied and distributed; it opened the eyes of the common man to what the church was doing. It was quickly printed and spread throughout Germany
|Martin Luther||What: started a reform movement questioning the power of the pope/church|
When: 1483 - 1500's
Where: Germany - Worms
Significance: posted the 95 theses which marked the beginning of the reformation and never stepped down from what he said he believed. Luther was very educated, a monk and professor at the University of Wittenberg. His idea that salvation was through faith alone challenged what the church said. The beliefs he brought were accepted and still used today by Lutherans.
|Protestant Reformation|| What: Major reforms within Christianity/Church|
Significance: opened the eyes of the people that the church and papacy were abusing their power. Created major split in Christianity (Lutheran/Catholicism) This split led to more in the future
|Anabaptists||Sig: Took the bible very literally.|
|Menno Simons|| Dutch Anabaptist leader, second generation|
When: 1496 to 1561
Significance: Founder of Mennonites, emphasized peace, love and justice