Meteorology Exam 3

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the same pressure but higher density than the warm parcel

If two air parcels at sea level have the same size but different temperatures, the colder parcel of air will have:

isobars

Lines connecting points of equal pressure are called:

pressures, heights

Low ____ on a constant height chart corresponds to low ____ on a constant pressure chart.

a trough

A surface low pressure center is generally associated with ____ on an upper level isobaric chart.

higher-than-average heights

A ridge on an upper-level isobaric chart indicates:

Newton

The fundamental laws of motion were formulated by:

gravitational force

Which of the following forces does not have a direct effect on horizontal wind motions?

Coriolis force

Which of the following forces can not act to change the speed of the wind?

pressure gradient force

The force that would cause a stationary parcel of air to begin to move horizontally is called the:

Coriolis force

The ____ is an apparent force created by the earth's rotation.

Zonal

When the wind blows in a more or less west to east direction, the wind flow pattern is called:

NE to N to NW

A surface LOW pressure area that moves from south to north directly east of your home would most likely produce winds that shift from:

east

If, at your home in the Northern Hemisphere, the surface wind is blowing from the northwest, then the region of lowest pressure will be to the ____ of your home.

to your left

Buys-Ballot's law states that, "In the Northern Hemisphere if you stand with your back to the surface wind, then turn clockwise about 30o, lower pressure will be ____."

rising, sinking

We can generally expect the air to be ____ above areas of surface low pressure and ____ above areas of surface high pressure.

toward the earth, toward the earth

In the vertical, the pressure gradient force points ____ and gravity points ____.

West

If in the Northern Hemisphere the upper level winds above you are blowing from the south, then it is a good bet that a trough of low pressure is to the ____ of you.

Increase

Suppose a parcel of air has a given temperature, pressure, and density. If the parcel's size remains the same while its temperature increases, then the air pressure inside the parcel will:

clockwise and outward from the center

The wind around a surface high pressure center in the Northern Hemisphere blows:

contour lines

On a 500 millibar chart, ____ are drawn to represent horizontal changes in altitude which correspond to horizontal changes in pressure.

pressure is constant

On an isobaric surface,

higher, higher

Warm air aloft is associated with constant pressure surfaces that are found at ____ altitude than normal and ____ than normal atmospheric pressure aloft.

clockwise and inward toward the center

The wind around a surface low pressure center in the Southern Hemisphere blows:

altitude

The contour lines drawn on a 500 mb chart are lines of constant:

Coriolis force, pressure gradient force, and centripetal force (all of the above).

Which of the following can influence wind direction?

meridional flow

A wind flow pattern that takes on a more or less north-south trajectory is called:

around surface low pressure centers in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

Winds blow slightly inward:

millibars or hectopascals

The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather map:

there would still be a Coriolis force

If the earth stopped rotating which of the following would not be true?

from west to east

The winds aloft in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere generally blow:

a constant height chart

The surface weather map is a sea level chart. Thus, a surface weather map is also called:

pressure gradient

The amount of pressure change that occurs over a given horizontal distance is called the:

Newton's second law of motion

The "force exerted on an object equals its mass times the acceleration produced" is a description of:

East

Suppose that the winds aloft are geostrophic and blowing from the north. Low pressure is located to the:

Microscale

The smallest scale of atmospheric motion is the:

the wind speed, surface heating, and the landscape (All of the above).

On a clear, windy day, the depth to which mixing occurs above the surface depends upon:

wind shear

An abrupt change in wind speed or wind direction is called:

anemometer

An instrument used to measure wind speed is called a(an):

they mainly occur at night

Which below is usually not true concerning a sea breeze circulation?

sea breeze

A smog front is most often associated with which wind system?

in the afternoon

During the summer along the coast, a sea breeze is usually strongest and best developed:

wet weather and winds blowing from sea to land

The summer monsoon in eastern and southern Asia is characterized by:

summer

Low pressure becomes best developed over the Asian continent in:

valley breezes

Cumulus clouds that appear above isolated mountain peaks are often the result of:

compressional heating

The heat from a chinook wind is generated mainly by:

warm, dry

The Santa Ana wind is a ____, ____ wind that blows into southern California:

Dust Devil

Another name for a small, rotating whirlwind observed at the surface is:

the percent of time the wind blows from different directions

A wind rose describes

thermal circulations

The land/sea breeze, lake breeze, and mountain/valley breeze are examples of

true

Clear air turbulence often occurs near a boundary of high wind shear.

warm, dry downslope winds

Chinook winds are:

in the afternoon

Surface winds are generally strongest and most gusty:

1019 mb

If the sea level pressure in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is 1016 mb, the strongest summertime sea breeze along the New Jersey coast would occur when the sea level pressure just east of Atlantic City, New Jersey is:

blows from land to water

An offshore wind:

low pressure areas that enhance rainfall during the summer monsoon

Monsoon depressions are:

dry weather and winds blowing from land to sea.

The winter monsoon in eastern and southern Asia is characterized by:

1000 m (3,300 ft)

The top of the friction layer is usually found near what altitude?

a drop in relative humidity

In summer, during the passage of a sea breeze, which of the following is not usually observed?

sea breeze

A cool, summertime wind that blows from sea to land is called a:

in early afternoon

A valley breeze would develop its maximum strength:

winds blowing through a city

An example of mesoscale motion is:

land breeze

During the summer in humid climates, nighttime clouds tend to form over water during a:

temperature differences

A sea or land breeze is caused by:

sinking air warms by compression

The main reason Santa Ana winds are warm is because:

Haboob

A dust or sandstorm that forms along the leading edge of a thunderstorm is a:

compressional heating

The heat from a chinook wind is generated mainly by:

thermal circulations

The land/sea breeze, lake breeze, and mountain/valley breeze are examples of

high, northeast of Los Angeles over the Great Basin

Strong Santa Ana winds develop in Los Angeles during the fall when
a ____ pressure center forms to the ____.

4

If the wind speed doubles, the force exerted by the wind increases by a factor of

clouds form and precipitation falls on the upwind side of the mountains

On the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, chinook winds are driest when:

bank of clouds that form over the mountains and signal the possible onset of a chinook

A chinook wall cloud is a:

winds blowing past a chimney

An example of microscale motion is:

blows from land to water

An offshore wind:

a drop in relative humidity

In summer, during the passage of a sea breeze, which of the following is not usually observed?

in early afternoon

A valley breeze would develop its maximum strength:

the earth rotates once in 24 hours

Which below is not an assumption of the single-cell model of the general circulation of the atmosphere?

northeast trades meet the southeast trades

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a region where:

Easterly

At Barrow, Alaska (latitude 70o N), you would expect the prevailing wind to be:

westerlies

The majority of the United States lies within this wind belt:

south of the subtropical highs

On a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds would be observed:

30o latitude and the polar regions

In terms of the three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near:

thermal low

On a surface weather map during the month of July, one would expect to find what type of pressure system over the desert southwest of the United States?

is driven by energy from the sun

A thermally direct cell is one that

in a wavy pattern from west to east

The jet stream flows:

the sloping of the land from the Rockies to the Mississippi Valley, a north-south trending mountain range, and stable air above the jet (All of the above).

Factors that contribute to the formation of a low-level jet stream over the Central Plains of the United States are:

upwelling

The cold water observed along the northern California coast in summer is due mainly to:

El Niño

The name given to the current of warm water that replaces cold surface water along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during December is:

extensive ocean warming occurs over the tropical Pacific

During a major El Niño event:

False

Because clouds often block their view, instruments onboard satellite cannot regularly make observations of surface winds.

Meridional

A jet stream transfers more heat across the globe when it is:

the rising of cold water from below

Upwelling is:

clockwise, clockwise

In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents in the Atlantic and the Pacific move in a generally circular pattern. The direction of this motion is ____ in the Atlantic and ____ in the Pacific.

Hadley cell

The large thermally driven convection cell that is driven by convective "hot" towers along the equator is the:

is driven by energy from the sun

A thermally direct cell is one that

30o latitude and the polar regions

In terms of the three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near:

Winter

The average winds aloft are strongest in:

El Niño

The name given to the current of warm water that replaces cold surface water along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during December is:

northeast trades meet the southeast trades

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a region where:

westerlies

Chicago, Illinois (latitude 42o N) is located in the ____.

late fall and early winter when cold, dry polar air moves over the relatively warm water

Lake-effect snows are best developed around the Great Lakes during:

the prevailing winds aloft are westerly

Wintertime mP air masses are less common along the Atlantic coast of North America than along the Pacific coast mainly because:

mT

A warm, moist air mass that forms over water is called:

Northern Canada and Alaska

The origin of cP and cA air masses that enter the United States is:

mT and cP

The greatest contrast in both temperature and moisture will occur along the boundary separating which air masses?

cold and dry

One would expect a cP air mass to be

cP

What type of air mass would be responsible for refreshing cool, dry breezes after a long summer hot spell in the Central Plains?

mT

During the spring, which air mass would most likely bring record-breaking high temperatures to the eastern half of the United States?

cT

What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, dry summer weather in southern Arizona?

northern Mexico and the southwestern U.S. (both a and c).

Continental tropical air masses are typically found in

a dew point front and a boundary marking a strong horizontal change in atmospheric moisture

A drylines is

the winds blow parallel to the front

A stationary front does not move because:

cold fronts

In winter, thunderstorms are most likely to form along:

it has warm air ahead (in advance) of it

Which of the following is not correct concerning a warm front?

Overrunning

The rising of warm air up and over cold air is called:

cold-type occluded front

On a weather map where cold air is replacing cool air, what type of front is drawn?

cold-type occluded front

What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast? "Light rain and cold today with temperatures just above freezing. Southeasterly winds shifting to westerly tonight. Turning colder with rain becoming mixed with snow, then changing to snow."

cold front

What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast: "Increasing cloudiness and warm today with the possibility of showers by this evening. Turning much colder tonight. Winds southwesterly becoming gusty and shifting to northwesterly by tonight."

a front

On a weather map, the transition zone between two air masses with sharply contrasting properties is marked by:

warm front

What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast: "Increasing high cloudiness and cold this morning. Clouds increasing and lowering this afternoon with a chance of snow or rain tonight. Precipitation ending tomorrow morning. Turning much warmer. Winds light easterly today becoming southeasterly tonight and southwesterly tomorrow."

a "back door" cold front

A cold front that moves into New England from the east or northeast is called:

mT

The air mass with the highest actual water vapor content is:

a cP, warm

The lake effect occurs when ____ air mass moves over a ____ body of water.

cP air mass moving over warm water

Cumuliform cloud development would be most likely in which of the following?

Low Pressure

Fronts are associated with

Temperature

The only indication on the station model of past weather conditions is the:

a cold front overtakes a warm front

Occluded fronts may form as:

cold front

On a weather map this front, drawn in blue, represents a region where colder air is replacing warmer air:

mT

What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, muggy summer weather in the eastern half of the United States?

mT

What type of air mass would be responsible for heavy summer rain showers in southern Arizona?

mT

The air mass with the highest actual water vapor content is:

mP

The designation for a cool, moist air mass is:

widespread precipitation and storminess

Along the boundary between continental polar and maritime tropical air masses, ____ is often found.

Rises and cools

At a warm front, the warm air:

it is colored purple on a weather map

Which of the following is not correct concerning a cold front?

the winds blow parallel to the front

A stationary front does not move because:

cT

What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, dry summer weather in southern Arizona?

generally flat areas of uniform composition with light surface winds

A good source region for an air mass would be:

has cold surface air behind it

A cold-type occluded front:

Cool, Moist, and Conditionally Unstable.

A maritime polar air mass that reaches the Pacific Coast is

upslope snow

During winter, easterly winds along the front range of the Rocky Mountains provides excellent conditions for

cP

What type of air mass would be responsible for refreshing cool, dry breezes after a long summer hot spell in the Central Plains?

In winter, cA source regions have lower temperatures than cP source regions

Which of the following statements is most plausible?

mT

In Southern California, which air mass is mainly responsible for heavy rains, flooding in low-lying valleys, and melting of snow at high elevations?

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