Nutrition Ch 10 & 11

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Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?

The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams

What is a precursor?

A substance that is used to synthesize another compound

What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?

The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body

General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following EXCEPT

They must be consumed daily

All of the following are general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins EXCEPT

excesses are eliminated from the kidneys

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of

vitamin A

Which of the following vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?

Vitamin A

What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins?

Kidney

When thiamin is consumed in excess of needs, how does the body treat the excess?

Excreted primarily in the urine

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Which of the following explains why B vitamin deficiencies lead to lack of energy?

Coenzymes needed for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts

Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme?

Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?

Energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?

Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

Which of the following is the coenzyme form of thiamin?

Thiamin pyrophosphate

Beriberi results from a deficiency of

Thiamin

Which of the following diets is most likely to lead to beriberi?

High intakes of white rice

The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of

Thiamin

Which of the following is a characteristic of thiamin nutrition?

It is an integral part of the nerve cell membrane

Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?

80

All of the following are characteristic of thiamin nutrition EXCEPT

Recommended intakes are stated in "equivalents"

Which of the following provides the most thiamin per serving size?

Ham

Which of the following is a property of thiamin nutrition?

Poor sources include seafood and cheeses

How does the method of cooking affect thiamin stability?

Microwaving the food conserves much of the thiamin

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?

Pig

Of the following, which is the richest food source of thiamin?

Soy milk

Riboflavin in its coenzyme form functions in the transfer of

hydrogen atoms

Which of the following vitamins is involved substantially in energy transformation reactions?

Riboflavin

Which of the following is indicative of a dietary deficiency of riboflavin?

Inflamed mouth membranes

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?

Vegetables

What is ariboflavonosis?

The vitamin B2 deficiency disease

The signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are know collectively as?

Ariboflavinosis

Riboflavin needs are more difficult to meet when diet is low in

dairy foods

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

ultraviolet light

What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?

Cardboard

The coenzyme FAD is formed from what vitamin?

Riboflavin

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?

Milk

Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of the following vitamins?

Riboflavin

A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?

Riboflavin

Which of the following is a property of riboflavin in nutrition?

Stability to heat is good

Which of the following is a property of niacin in nutrition?

It can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tryptophan

Which of the following properties is shared by niacin and riboflavin coenzymes?

Acceptance and transfer of hydrogen atoms

When the diet contains an adequate amount of protein, what amino acid can be used by the body to synthesize niacin?

Tryptophan

Which of the the following nutrients functions to prevent the appearance of a bilateral, symmetrical dermatitis, primarily on the areas exposed to the sun?

Niacin

The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means

rough skin

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?

Niacin

What vitamin deficiency disease appeared in people who had subsisted on a diet high in corn and low in protein?

Pellagra

Which of the following is NOT among the common signs of pellagra?

Desiccation

A general niacin deficiency is know to be manifested in abnormalities of all of the following organs/systems EXCEPT

skeletal system

Tryptophan can be used in the body to synthesize

niacin

While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of

Pellagra

Which of the following substances is found in corn and contributes to the development of pellagra?

Leucine

What term identifies the characteristic tingling sensations and reddening of the skin after ingesting a pharmacologic dose of nicotinic acid?

Niacin flush

Which of the following overt side effects is likely to appear after a person ingests a high quantity of nicotinic acid?

Painful, tingling, itching sensation

When taken in large doses, which of the following vitamins is associated with liver injury and peptic ulcers?

Niacin

Large doses of nicotinic acid are known to result in all of the following EXCEPT

disappearance of learning disorders in children

Which of the following is a feature of niacin nutrition?

High doses may lower blood cholesterol

Your friend Jane just returned from the doctor who diagnosed her with a specific vitamin B toxicity. However, she doesn't recall the name of the vitamin. Which of the following is the only possible culprit associated with toxicity symptoms?

Niacin

What is the approximate niacin RDA for adults?

15 niacin equivalents

Among the following, which would be the best source of niacin equivalents?

Chicken

Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consumes 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should NOT

be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.

Features of biotin in nutrition include all of the following EXCEPT

a deficiency can be induced by ingesting large amounts of thiamin and folic acid, which interfere with its absorption

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?

Biotin

Which of the following foods contains a protein that decreases bioavailability of biotin?

raw egg whites

A protein that binds with biotin (thus inhibiting absorption) is found in which food?

Raw egg whites

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?

Biotin

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

What is the adult Adequate Intake for biotin?

30ug

What vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?

Pantothenic acid

What is the AI for pantothenic acid for adults?

5 mg

Which of the following vitamins is known to sustain substantial losses during processing of food?

Pantothenic acid

Forms of vitamin B6 include all of the following EXCEPT

pyrimidine

Which of the following vitamins is stored primarily in muscle tissue?

Vitamin B6

The chief symptoms of early vitamin B6 deficiency include

confusion and depression

What vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism?

Vitamin B6

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?

It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure

All of the following are features if vitamin B6 metabolism EXCEPT

It enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for vitamin B6?

100 mg

A common drug for the treatment of tuberculosis is known to markedly interfere in the metabolism of vitamin

B6

Irreversible nerve damage has been reported in people taking large doses of

Vitamin B6

Which of the following statements reflects our knowledge of water-soluble vitamin toxicity?

Toxicity symptoms for vitamin B6 can be severe and irreversible

In what major way does alcohol intake affect vitamin B6 metabolism?

It dislodges the PLP coenzyme from its enzyme

What is the adult RDA for vitamin B6?

1.3 mg

On a per-kcalorie basis, which of the following foods is richest in vitamin B6?

Vegetables

Which of the following is an essential nutrient for human beings?

Folate

Pteroylglutamic acid is known as

folate

All of the following are properties of folate in nutrition EXCEPT

it functions primarily in the transfer of amino groups

Which of the following characteristics is shared by vitamin B12 and folate?

Both are required for nucleic acid synthesis

Which of the following vitamins undergoes significant enterohepatic circulation?

Folate

Which of the following vitamins is usually found in a form that is bound to one or more glutamic acid molecules in food?

Folate

A person with a disorder that limits absorption of bile is at increased risk for deficiency of

folate

What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?

Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

Which of the following is NOT a feature of folate nutrition?

Folate must be methylated by homocysteine prior to crossing the bush border membrane

Approximately what percentage of dietary folate is bioavailable?

50

The percent bioavailability of a folate supplement taken on an empty stomach is

100

How many dietary folate equivalents are provided by 100 ug of a folate supplement?

170

What fraction of women capable of vetoing pregnant ingest the RDA for folate?

1/2

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

folate

Which of the the following isa type of neural tube defect?

Spina bifida

Which of the following is a feature if folate nutrition?

Synthetic folate is 70% more available than naturally occurring food folate

By law, what amount of folate (ug) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?

140

How many DFEs is Nicole consuming?

580

Because of adverse interactions with other vitamins, a safe daily folate intake is up to

1000 ug

A deficiency of which of the following vitamins results in accumulation of homocysteine in the blood?

Folate

The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of

folate

What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells

folate

Which of the following substances is known to adversely affect folate utilization?

Regular use of antacids

Which of the following is representative of folate availability in foods?

Much of the vitamin is lost due to heat and oxidation

Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?

Some anticancer drugs

Physiological stresses such as blood loss, burns, measles, and cancers are know particularly to increase the risk of deficiency for

folate

Which of the following is associated with a deficiency of folate?

Macrocytic anemia

Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed

goat's milk

Among all the vitamins, which is believed to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs?

Folate

What is the RDA for folate for a women weighing 132 pounds?

400 ug

What is the adult RDA for folate (ug)?

400

Which of the following foods is highest in folate?

Green, leafy vegetables

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?

Intrinsic factor

What is the function of intrinsic factor in vitamin B12 absorption?

It attaches to the vitamin, thereby allowing absorption from the intestines

All of the following are required for efficient dietary absorption of vitamin B12 EXCEPT

mucosal cobalaminase

What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency

Inadequate absorption

Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin B12

The nasal spray route represents a safe and efficacious means for the supply of

vitamin B12

The absorption of which of the following vitamins is most affected by the disorder atrophic gastritis?

Vitamin B12

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

It is efficiently recycled by the body

A similar typer of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either

vitamin B12 or folate

Which of the following is a common treatment for pernicious anemia caused by inadequate absorption?

Injection of cobalamin

If a person refrained from ingesting any of the water-soluble vitamins, deficiency symptoms would appear last for

vitamin B12

Normally, the body's storage and re-utilization of vitamin B12 prevents a primary or secondary deficiency from occurring until after about

3 years

In a person who loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12, approximately what period of time could elapse before deficiency signs develop?

Three years

Pernicious anemia results from a combinations of lack of intrinsic factor and

lack of hydrochloric acid

Which of the following is NOT known to be a risk factor for development of atrophic gastritis?

Avoidance of leafy vegetables

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 bioavailability?

Synthetic B12 in supplement form is highly utilizable

Among the following water-soluble vitamins, a secondary deficiency would most likely be seen for

Vitamin B12

Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin

Of the following foods, which would be the only source of vitamin B12?

Hot dog

Which of the following is a characteristic of vitamin B12?

it is inactivated when the food is heated in a microwave

The adult RDA for vitamin B12 (ug) is

2.4

Which of the following vitamins has an RDA?

Cobalamin

Which of the following is known to perform an essential function in the human body?

Carnitine

Which of the following is NOT known to be required in the diet of human beings?

Lipoic acid

Which of the following is classified as a conditionally essential nutrient?

Choline

Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human begins?

Choline

Which of the following is NOT known to be a vitamin for human beings?

Ubiquinone

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?

Tonque

Which of the following is an overt sign of a possible B vitamin deficiency?

smooth tongue

Which of the following charcterisitics is shared by vitamins B6, B12, C, and folate?

Consumption prevents anemia

What is a free radical?

A molecule with at least one upaired electon

Which of the following is a general is a general function of vitamin C?

Antioxdant agent

In what capacity does vitamin C function?

Cofactor in collagen formation

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