abstinence violation effect
a response to a lapse in which a person blames himself or herself and concludes that he or she is incapable of resisting high-risk situations
sustained activity that elevates the heart rate and increases the body's need for oxygen
literally, antibody generators, or foreign substances that activate the cells of the immune system
beliefs relating to our ability to deal effectively with a stressful stimulus or situation, including pain.
seeing oneself or one's situation as more positive than a standard of comparison, thereby increasing one's sense of well-being
coping strategies directed at minimizing or reducing emotional responses to a stressor
natural opiate-like substances that are involved in pain reduction
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
selye's description of the body's responses to a stressor, which includes successive phases of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
a prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a problem behavior but to reduce its harmful consequences
the study of psychological and behavioral factors in the prevention and treatment of illness and the enhancement of health.
the tendency of people to return to a less extreme level of pleasure or pain with the passage of time following a very positive or very negative life change
life event scales
a measures in which respondents select from a list, those life changes they have experienced over a specific period of time. Such measures are used to assess life stressors as well as positive events.
a treatment approach that avoids confrontation and leads clients to their own realization of a problem and increases their motivation to change
substance-abuse interventions that combine a number of treatments, such as aversion therapy ad coping skills training.
an inactive or inert substance
posttraumatic growth (PTG)
the experience of positive psychological changes reported by some individuals following a major life crisis or traumatic event.
coping strategies that involve direct attempts to confront and master a stressful situation
environmental or personal resources that help people fare better in the face of stress
a treatment approach designed to teach coping skills, increase self-efficacy, and counter the abstinence violation effect, thus reducing the likelihood of relapse
the ability to withstand psychologicla stress
seeking social support
turning to others for assistance or emotional support in times of stress
a term variously used to refer to (1) situations that place strong demands on an organism, (2) the cognitive, physiological, and behavioral responses to such situations, and (3) the ongoing transaction between individuals and demanding situations.
situations that place demands on organisms that tax or exceed their resources
the pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioral reactions to demands that exceed a person's resources
subjective well-being (SWB)
Happiness; the overall degree of satisfaction with one's life
a model of behavior change that includes the phases of precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination
Type A behavior pattern
A sense of time urgency, pressured behavior, and hostility that appears to be a risk factor in coronary heart disease
seeing oneself or one's situation as worse off than the standard for comparison